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First Word 

By Gregory Benford 





By Keith Ferrell 



By Denny Atkin 



By Steve Nadis 

Fuzzy Fysicians 



By Bennett Daviss 



By Denny Atkin 


the way 



By Byron Poole 


Electronic Universe 

By Gregg Keizer 



By Bill Lawren 


Kid Stuff 

By Chris Krejlgaard 




By Richard Farr 



Painting by Hajime Sorayama. 

A celebration of humankind meeting the future. 

Additional art credits, page 114. 


The Science of 
Star Trek 

By Denny Atkin 


joins fiction to bring 

to life the 
tools and technology 

of Star Trek. 
Plus, a review of Star 

Trek CD- 
ROMs and technical 

Looking for the 

Sweet Spot 
in N-Dimensional 

By Kathleen Stein 


sweet- spot making 


of experiments: 

the genius of 

David Doehlert and 

Neil Sloane 


Beyond Death 

and Dying 

By Melanie Menagh 

What do 

Omni readers believe? 

The results 
of our exclusive survey 

of your beliefs 
about the afterdeath. 

Cammeray NSW 2i 

Printed in U.S.A. 

-, NJ 07302 En 



By Charles Pellegrino 

According to 

this scientist, dinosaurs 

may walk the 

earth again within 

20 years. 


Science Fiction 

By Keith Ferrell 

Chung Kuo 



Some Like It 


By John Kessel 

Marilyn Monroe 




Once More, 


By Ray Bradbury 

If the birds 

disappear, do they 

still sing? 



Three Portraits from 


By Kathe Koja 


Barry Malzberg 

A woman 

sees her lile reflected 

in rain- 
drenched windows. 


The Truth About 

By Dava Sobel 

A complete 

history of one of this 


most controversial UFO 



Star Witness 

By Karl T. Pf lock 

An interview 

with the mortician of 


Glenn Dennis 


The Case of 

the Vanishing 


By Paul McCarthy 

What really 
happened to the 

five Army 

nurses at Roswell? 



By Manfred Kage 



Daniel Dennett 

By Robert K. J. 




By Scot Morris 


Last Word 

By Bob Quinn 

Just as Sorayarna's illustralion depicts the conjoining of man 

with the future, this first issue of the new, 
reformatted Omni is dedicated to the future. We offer a fact- 
based look at the futuristic legacy of 
Star Trek, the logistics of resurrecting the ancient giants, the 

next generation of mathematics, and the 
results of what you believe about the final future: the after- 
death. We hope you enjoy this Omni of the future. 



Working together to find answers 

By Gregory Benford 

UFO fans hate scientists, 
and vice versa. Or so it 
seems, reading their 
mutually acrimonious exchanges, 
in person and online alike. I get 
the definite impression of angry 
people shouting past each other 
to little effect. 

There are good reasons for 
this, not the least of which is sim- 
ple scientific skepticism, As a 
physicist, I'm sympathetic to the 
argument that nearly half a cen- 
tury after the first "flying saucer 
scare," we have no solid, physical, 
generally agreed upon evidence. 
Studies of ghosts have the same 
trouble. No data, no science. 
Personally, I think the extrater- 
Notonlya restrial visitor explanation of the 
respected physi- widespread reported sightings is 
Gist GTBfl quite unlikely— but not disproved 
Benford is one Of or impossible, and there's the 
the leading rub. In science, hypotheses must 
SCience-fiCtlon be checked and rechecked. Sci- 
wrilers Of his entists speak of falsifying theo- 
generatlon. His ries, not proving them, for no 
Galactic proof is ever final. A theory is 
Center series is only as good as its latest rub 

published by against reality. 
Bantam BOOKS. The alien visitor theory of 

UFOs has not been falsified, but 
it has few advocates, perhaps 
none, among scientists — and 
they do no research into it. So 
the subject is mired in coverage 
via media such as The X-Files 
and the National Enquirer. 

Instead of the high-decibel 
cat fight we now witness, how 
about some serious study? 

If the alien visitor explanation 
holds water, then their frequent 
visits imply a base somewhere in 
our solar system. (I assume they 
don't have faster-than-light travel 
so convenient that zipping across 
the galaxy for dinner is fashion- 
able.) Obviously, they're making 
it tough for scientists to get any 
physical proof of them. Why? We 
can't say — aliens are tricky. 

But they can't brush away all 
their footprints, and a serious 

UFO enthusiast should be willing 
to track them down. That's where 
the scientists come in. 

To be taken seriously by sci- 
entists, I think UFO fans should 
support — obviously including 
iunding — research which could 
uncover convincing evidence. 
UFOIogists would gain both 
credibility and, perhaps, some 
solid arguing points. 

They should try thinking like 
scientists, too. Aliens might do 
anything, but they need a place 
to sleep, regroup, refuel. Where? 

There are several likely spots 
where UFOs could conveniently 
base. Obviously, the moon — 
probably on the other side, to be 
secretive. Searching for them 
there implies a careful analysis 
of the high-resolution mapping 
data acquired in 1994 by the 
Clementine spacecraft. Such 
scrutiny is going on right now, 
but not with an agenda of 
searching for a UFO base. For 
quite small sums, a single data 
processor could cast a fresh eye 
at the data and report oddities. 
There are certain to be some. 

Think further. There are con- 
venient places to park a space- 
ship nearby. The lunar Lagrangian 
points are stable zones, leading 

and trailing the moon in its orbit. 
A base left there would not drift 
from tidal tugs. Are there UFOs 
lurking there? 

In the early 1980s two as- 
tronomers looked for shiny objects 
reflecting sunlight at the La- 
grangian points and found nothing 
down to their resolving limit of a 
few meters. (See Icarus. Volume 
55, page 453.) They did this with- 
out UFO ideas in mind. If the UFO 
community had supplied the few 
thousands of dollars their work 
cost, they would at least have 
gained some respect. 

How about searching further 
afield? Throughout the 1980s 
Michael Papagiannis oi Boston 
University argued in scientific 
journals that starfaring aliens 
might well use the asteroid belt 
as an easy residential zone and 
source of raw materials. 

He proposed looking for them 
by tracking their waste heat; any- 
thing using energy eventually 
generates an infrared glow. Most 
asteroids are 200 degrees Celsius 
colder than freezing, so heat stands 
out. The proposal was technically 
sound. Still, Papagiannis could 
not get NASA or IslSF funding. 

Enter the UFOIogists. A foun- 
dation dedicated to real, objec- 
tive research which bears upon 
UFOs could fund Papagiannis's 
infrared search, or other such 
ideas. The foundation would fur- 
ther true scientific research, be 
cited in publications, and build 
bridges to a vastly skeptical sci- 
entific community. 

Odds are they'll find nothing, 
of course. That happens all the 
time to scientists. But the art of 
searching itself is noble, progres- 
sive, and might just surprise 
everyone. I urge the UFO com- 
munity to consider reaching out 
in this way. A serious institution 
would be greeted by far more re- 
spect than is the shouting match 
going on now.OO 


Editor in Chief S Publisher 


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Kathy Keeton Vice Chairman and Chiei 

Operating Officer 

William F. Marlieb President/Marketing, Sales S 


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Chief Financial Officer 

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and Circulation 

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KeAhFetreH Si.V.P./DirectorOn-Line Services 

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Sharon Steinkemper 4ss(. Treasurer 


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Sounding off on CDs, learning year round, and deciphering 

an E.T.'s message 

Big Thanks to Pinkwater 
A super-size vote of thanks to Daniel 
Pinkwater [Last Word, April 1995] and 
to Omni. Like Mr. Pinkwater, I have 
been fat most of my life, except when I 
suffered with anorexia. I feel much bet- 
ter at my super-size weight than I ever 
did at my lower weight. Baiting the 
obese is the last safe prejudice. When 
fat people complain, they are accused 
of lacking a sense of humor. Fat people 
are discriminated against in employ- 
ment, socially, and recreationally. I hope 
Mr. Pinkwater's article gives other fat 
people the courage to make a stand. 

Barbara Turner 
St, Charles, MO 

CDs or not CDs? 

Excellent article on vinyl vs. CD [Sounds, 
February 1995]. One area that needed 
to be addressed is that of time. I will 
challenge any purchasers of Pearl 
Jam's Vitalogy on vinyl to play it at least 
three or four times a week for a solid 
ten years, storing it as they would any 
other record. At the end of that ten years, 
let's compare the sound quality against 
my CD of the same album, which I will 
have played the same amount. I cher- 
ish the albums I own, more for an artis- 
tic sense than anything else, but I play 
my CDs, which don't crackle and hiss 
like a bowl of cereal. I applaud the 
vinyl revolution, but let's not get ridicu- 
lous here. Besides, in another ten 
years, they'll have developed some- 
thing to make my CDs obsolete. 

A. E. Sparrow 

Lexington, KY 

AOL: Wurdswurth 

Time for Learning 

I often see arguments such as those in 
"Learning" in your April 1995 issue: for 
or against a few more days of school 
for children in the United States. When 
I see these, I remember my stay in The 
Netherlands. I put my children in Dutch 
public school. They had longer days 
than they had in California, they went 
half-days on Saturday, and they got 
two weeks off for summer vacation, just 
as their parents. And guess what 7 
They survived! There is no rational rea- 
son for children to spend less than the 
full year in school. They are not wimps 

who cannot stand it. They are the fu- 
ture of our country, and they can use 
the training. 

Dr. Richard K. Thompson 
Acton, CA 

Quantity of school time does not nec- 
essarily produce a better education. A 
year-round school would interfere with 
the traditional family vacations and all 
important family time. Students sub- 
jected to longer school days would be 
very tired at the end of the day and de- 
velop a total dislike for school since 
this would keep them from being in- 
volved in any extracurricular activities. 
We need to create well rounded indi- 
viduals, not educated robots. 

Alma E. Morales 

Miami, FL 

AOL: AlmaE 

Decoding Alien Messages 

"What Would You Say to an Alien," 

[January 1995] shows that many peo- 
ple consider the whole idea an imprac- 
tical hypothetical situation. But c 
me among the contrarians who are ut- 
terly convinced that we can get an un- 
derstandable message through to 
them. With luck, the first message we 
receive (which may have been en 
route here for many years) will be deci- 
pherable, and communication will be 
off to a fast start to all of those crea- 
tures 50 light-years away. My fond 
hope is that some group of space en- 
thusiasts will contrive a message that 
some hot dog cryptographer can deci- 
pher and that the accomplishment 
will electrify the world. Then let some 
message from outer space be similarly 
decipherable, and we might all be pro- 
moted to corporal. 

Alston Levesque 
San Jose, CADO 

Got something to say but no time to 
write? Call (900) 285-5483. Your com- 
ments will be recorded and may appear 
in an upcoming issue of Omni. The cost 
for the call is 95 cents per minute. You 
must be age 1 8 or older. Touch-tone 
phones only. Sponsored by Pure Enter- 
tainment, 505 South Beverly Drive, 
Suite 977, Beverly Hills, CA 90212, 

Computer, bring me the future...' 


hitb miCHHEL OKUDfl 



/Ynd the future is STAR TREK 

Now the entire STAR TREK universe is at the 

command of desktop computer users, with the 

r voice-activated encyclopedia. This grou.. u 
breaking new CD-ROM delivers more than B.000 
■referencing the first three TV series 
i. Here, illustrated in more than 100 
™ movies and animations; 1500 still 
ations, and renderings; you'll find 
the captains and crews of the many Federation 
starships and summary logs of their e[ ' 
as recounted in episode after episode of STAR 
TREK. Planets from all over the four quadrants of 
the galaxy; alien life forms and cultures; hardware 
and technology; bios of your favorite Starfleet 

To order coll 1-800-983-! 

..'s equipped with 
■■■;«■„.:, the Omnipedia brings a new 
dimension to computer inquiry. State-of-the-art v( ' 
command technology allows Omr' 
summon forth their entry of choice. Featuring the 
official Federation computer voice of Majel Barrett 
Roddenberry, with narrations by Mark Lenard (known 
for his role as Spock's father, Sarek], the Omnipedia 
forms a solid historical base for the ever-evolving 
legacy of STAR TREK. Registered Omnipedia holders 
will gain early 
future now with STAR TREK OMNIPEDIA. 


Some notes on our change in format 

By Keith Ferrell 

J^^ few months ago Omni 
M^^L changed. Evolved 
M % might be a more ap- 
propriate word. We discontinued 
monthly publication and delivery 
ot the magazine by subscription, 
shifting our focus to electronic 
venues and quarterly super- 
issues, of which this is the first. 

These decisions were not 
made lightly, nor, for all the ex- 
citement our new ventures carry, 
were the changes accomplished 
without pain. But change is al- 
ways accompanied by disrup- 
tion, and evolution never occurs 
without some displacement. To 
those of you who find a void in 
the continuum where once you 
held your monthly Omni, I can 
only thank you for your patience, 
which I think you will find re- 
warded within these pages. 

And to those of you who sent 
messages of support, who un- 
derstood what we're seeking to 
accomplish with Omni in its new 
and various incarnations, 1 send 
our grateful appreciation. Your 
confidence in us means a lot. 

You see, we miss our monthly 

paper presence, too. But Omni, 
more than any other magazine, 
has always had its eye on the fu- 
ture, and for once the future re- 
ally is now. The nature of 
information-exchange is itself 
evolving and we would not be 
Omni if we did not embrace that 
evolution, swim in its currents, 
confront its challenges head-on. 
That's what we do, that's what 
we've always done. 

That's what we've been doing, 
in fact, pretty constantly since 
we were last together in paper 
format. We've been designing, 
building, and refining our pres- 
ence in cyberspace. By now 
many of you will have visited our 
site on the World Wide Web If 
not, drop by our location at and 
take a look. It's Omni: There's 
nothing else quite like it. 

We wanted to use our site as 
an opportunity to create a real 
Omni continuum, an interactive 
electronic universe where fact 
and fiction, speculation and 
commentary, dreams and reali- 
ties, science and history, paint- 
ings and prose, matter and 
antimatter could come together, 
collide, coalesce. We wanted to 
give you a time machine of sorts, 
a vehicle for exploring all of the 
areas and ideas, past, present, 
and future that have made Omni 
unique for 18 years. 

We think we've succeeded, 
but that judgment finally rests with 
you. Your participation in our elec- 
tronic ventures, as with the paper 
magazine, is vital. We look forward 
to your comments and sugges- 
tions, your insights and criticisms, 
and assure you that they will be 
taken seriously. This is your site 
as well as ours, so dive in. 

Nor have we ceased to de- 
velop and expand our presence 
in other online areas. By now, 
Omni Online on America Online 
is among the best-established of 

the electronic magazines, grow- 
ing daily larger and more rich. 
We remain committed to that 
presence, a commitment made 
possible by your enthusiasm and 

And look for other electronic 
versions of Omni on other online 
services in the months ahead. 
Online, on CD-ROM, and in media 
yet to be developed, Omni will 
continue to lead the way. 

Which brings me to the issue 
at hand. Our enthusiasm for 
electronic publication has in no 
way dimmed our determination 
to produce the best paper mag- 
azine in the world. Indeed, by 
moving from monthly publication 
we are able to deliver a larger 
Omni than has been possible on 
paper for some time, with more 
articles and columns, more fic- 
tion and illustration. We'll be on 
your newsstands four times a 
year in this format, bigger and 
better than ever. 

For Omni is not, I think, a single 
thing, and never has been. Our 
very name bespeaks our willing- 
ness to look at all of the universe 
and the ideas it contains. If I 
were pressed, though, to identify 
a single hero for Omni, it would 
be the human imagination and 
its willingness — its need— to con- 
front that universe and seek to 
unlock its mysteries without 
flinching. Pressed again for a sin- 
gle theme that exemplifies the 
magazine I would say that is evo- 
lution — that ongoing dance of 
change and adaptation, as true 
of ideas and magazines as of 
species and individuals. 

Imaginative evolution, then: 
An Omni for the twenty-first cen- 
tury — and beyond. 

Welcome back. It's good to 
have you here. DO 

The Winter 1995 issue of Omni 
will be available on newsstands 
by December 5. 



The advanced 777 is designed to please pilots and passengers alike 

By Denny Atkin 

Boeing's 300-seat 
777 Is packed 
with advanced 
such as compos- 
ite compo- 
nents, sophisti- 
cated flight- 


The last all-new airliner 
design of the twentieth 
century began life not 
on a sophisticated computer- 
aided design terminal in some 
Skunk Works engineering de- 
partment, but on a yellow notepad 
in an office at United Airlines' 
headquarters in Elk Grave, Illinois. 
Executives from Boeing, Pratt 
& Whitney, and United sat down 
on October 15, 1990 and 
sketched out simple goals for 
what they hoped would become 
the crowning achievement of air- 
liner technology in this century. 
The resulting Boeing 777 is defi- 
nitely advanced: It's the largest 
twin-engined aircraft in the 
world, powered by the biggest 
engines ever fitted to an airliner. 

"Working together" became 
the motto of the teams from all 
the companies involved in the 
design and manufacture of the 
777. Talking to your customers 
may seem a rather logical philos- 
ophy, but previous airliner de- 
signs came from an "engineering 
first" standpoint. From inception 
to the on-iime delivery of the first 
777 to United in May 1995, Boe- 
ing and United resolved more 
than 1,250 design issues. "This 
is exactly the plane we wanted, 
not the one we had to settle for," 
says United s Airframe and Sys- 
tems Development Manager, 
Brandon Maus. 

Some of the design changes 
were major, such as relocation of 
the fueling panel so it could be 
reached by standard hydrant 
trucks. Even seemingly minor 
changes, such as easily replace- 
able passenger reading lights 
(an operation that requires a me- 
chanic on other airliners, mean- 
ing there's no way to fix a bulb 
in-flight), make for fewer passen- 
ger frustrations. 

Overhead storage bins, the 
arch-nemeses of the heads of 
anyone over five feet in height, 

have been designed to retract 
up and away from passengers, 
allowing a full six feet, four inches 
of headroom for center-cabin 
passengers. The sides of the 
fuselage are nearly vertical at 
passenger level, giving more 
shoulder room than on smaller 
aircraft. Even the toilet seats 
have been redesigned to prevent 
them from banging: A unique 
system lets the seat come down 
slowly and keeps it from bounc- 
ing, even during turbulence. 

Passengers will find more to 
do at 35,000 feet thanks to Unit- 
ed 's Interactive Video System 
(IVS). Color LCD screens are 
mounted on the armrests (in the 
expensive seats) or on the back 
of the seat in front of you (in 
coach class). Using a controller 
stored in each seat's armrest, 
passengers will have access to 
six channels of video, 19 chan- 
nels of CD-quality audio, and 
videogames. The controller also 
doubles as an air phone, and 
can be used for voice or modem 
calls. Planned upgrades will 
allow shopping from a video cat- 
alog and access to flight and 
gate information. 

Advanced technology ex- 
tends into the realm of flight con- 
trol. The 777 does away with 
traditional cable and hydraulic 

controls and uses fly-by-wire 
(FBW) technology, where signals 
are transmitted electronically to 
the various control surfaces and 
other systems. The use of FBW 
in airliners has been the subject 
of some controversy, as some 
systems allow the flight computer 
to override pilot inputs when a 
commanded maneuver would 
take the plane out of its normal 
flight envelope. Boeing's control 
system always leaves the pilot 
with final authority. As with similar 
systems, if the pilot attempts to 
bring the plane into a stall or 
overspeed condition, or to bank 
at a severe angle, the system will 
warn of the danger and try to 
compensate. However, if there's an 
emergency and the pilot needs 
to override that protection, he or 
she can do so by using extra 
force on the control column. 

To deter abrupt maneuvering, 
the FBW flight control system 
proyides the same force feed- 
back on the control column as 
the pilot would encounter in a 
conventional aircraft. Also, both 
sets of controls physically move 
when adjusled by one pilot or 
the autopilot. 

The first 777s went into ser- 
vice with United in June; other 
domestic carriers won't start fly- 
ing the planes until 1997.DO 


Fuzzy logic and the body 

By Steve Nadis 


never replace 

the stethoscope, 

but with 

the help ol fuzzy 

Computers have done 
marvels for accountants 
and bankers, architects 
and engineers. But can ma- 
chines designed to calculate in 
the black-and-white language of 
numbers help physicians negoti- 
ate the decidedly gray world of 
medical diagnostics? They just 
might, some researchers hope, 
with the aid of some fuzzy logic. 

Fuzzy logic is by no means 
brand new. Since its formal in- 
ception in the 1960s, fuzzy logic 


tool for medical 


has been used to calculate 
everything from dirty laundry to 
subway braking systems. Lotfi 
Zadeh, the founding father of 
fuzzy logic, points out, however, 
that "in its current practical appli- 
cations, fuzzy logic serves to pro- 
vide methodology for computing 
with words." 

Computing images, such as 
mammograms, is the challenge 
now facing researchers who 
hope to harness the diagnostic 
potential of fuzzy logic. As Jim 
Keller, a computer engineer at 
the University of Missouri notes, 

"Interpreting images is a lot 
harder than controlling a valve." 

Yet that is exactly what Keller 
and his coileagues are trying to 
do. Before turning to medical ap- 
plications, he had spent 12 years 
writing fuzzy "target recognition" 
algorithms for the Air Force. To a 
computer, he says, spotting 
tanks among trees, buildings, 
and other obstacles is not that 
different from finding tumors or 
chromosome defects. 

For now, University of Mis- 
souri investigators are applying 
fuzzy logic to two medical tasks: 
the examination of mammograms 
(breast x-rays) and genetic 
screening for cancer. The goal is 
to develop computer programs 
that can provide the blend of in- 
tuition and common sense that 
humans rely on to solve difficult 
problems. "Traditional algorithms 
force you to make decisions at 
each stage of processing, before 
all the evidence is available," 
Keller says. "Fuzzy algorithms 
allow you to carry the uncertainty 
longer. It gives you a way of de- 
laying decisions until you have 
more information." This ap- 
proach makes sense to Bill Cald- 
well, laboratory director at the 
university's Ellis Fischel Cancer 
Center, because it approximates 
the way doctors make decisions: 
"We tend to evaluate various fac- 
tors, trying to defer final judg- 
ment until all the facts are in." 

Caldwell believes that com- 
puters should be able to evaluate 
mammograms more objectively, 
and perhaps more thoroughly, 
than humans. The first step is to 
digitize the image. The computer 
then calculates the size, shape, 
density, and border contrast of a 
mass — factors which can'indi- 
cate whether it is malignant or 
benign. Everything is a matter of 
degree, which is where fuzzy 
logic comes in. Tumors, for in- 
stance, are not perfectly jagged 

or perfectly smooth. "You can 
calculate deviations from a 
smooth line and put a number on 
it," Caldwell says. "The ultimate 
hope is that a computer might be 
able to spot signs that are too 
subtle for the human eye to de- 
tect. This is important, because 
the sooner you catch breast can- 
cer, the greater your chance of 
curing the patient." 

He and Keller are also trying 
to automate genetic screening 
processes that are now ex- 
tremely tedious. Technicians 
today have to spend hours peer- 
ing through microscopes, trying 
to spot abnormalities on specific 
genes of specific chromosomes 
that could lead to cancer. In par- 
ticular, they look for amplifica- 
tions (extra copies of genes) and 
deletions (missing copies of 
genes). These defects become 
apparent by staining the chro- 
mosome with colors. An excess 
of red, for example, may suggest 
an amplification of a tumor gene 
The magnitude of the amplifica- 
tion is gauged by the amount of 
color, which is exactly the kind of 
problem fuzzy logic is designed 
to address. "Human experts rely 
on intuition, but fuzzy algorithms 
may provide more quantitative 
measures," Keller notes. 

Jim Bezdek, a computer sci- 
entist at the University of West 
Florida, has no doubt that com- 
puters will become increasingly 
valuable clinical tools. "That 
doesn't mean doctors will turn 
control of their jobs over to com- 
puters," he says. Assuming he's 
right, computers will not be mak- 
ing medical decisions anytime 
soon. But given their ability to 
process vast amounts of data in 
an instant, these machines could 
fulfill a more modest objective: 
Fuzzy-logic computers may help 
doctors make more educated 
guesses — guesses that just 
might save more lives. DO 




Tomorrow's computers in a lab dish today 

By Bennett Daviss 

Nerve cells in 


Network neuro- 


hope to develop 

techniques to 

allow implanting 

of electrodes 

into the brain. 

Into a small recording cham- 
ber, Guenter Gross slips a 
glass plate etched with micro- 
circuits and randomly seeded 
with a few hundred neurons from 
a mouse embryo brain. In the 
chamber, 64 tiny electrodes reg- 
ister electrical blips; sponta- 
neously, the cells begin to 
communicate with each other. 
"And now," says the German- 
born neuroscientist, "we listen." 

As the director of the Center 
for Network Neuroscience at the 
University of North Texas, Gross 
has been eavesdropping on 
these interchanges since 1987. 
"The whole area of network re- 
search is still a black void of neu- 
roscience," he points out. "We 
have much information about the 
whole brain, thanks to MR I and 
PET devices, and decades of 
psychology. We also have in- 
creasing data about the individ- 
ual cell. But in between, on the 
network level — where small 
groups of neurons actually make 
things happen — we still know rel- 
atively little." Plying a favorite 
analogy, he adds: "An insect with 
a neural volume no larger than a 
pinhead can outclass digital 
computers in sensorimotor inte- 
gration and pattern recognition. 
The exploitation of this biological 
mystery is not just a scientific ex- 
ercise, but is of crucial impor- 
tance to our entire technological 
infrastructure" — from computer 
design to medical therapies— 
and ultimately might well lead to 
an understanding of the mechan- 
isms of intelligence. 

Gross and nine fellow CNNS 
researchers have learned to 
keep cells alive in culture for up 
to 10 months, entrain them to a 
stimulus, and even predict which 
electrical patterns will develop 
among them by reading random 
signals from individual cells. The 
investigators study everything 
from how networks organize 

themselves to what Gross eu- 
phemistically calls "fault toler- 
ance"— killing a network one 
neuron at a time to learn what 
proportion of the group's cells 
must die before the network 
ceases to function. They test the 
effects of drugs or microsurgical 
techniques on nelwork perfor- 
mance; and they constantly de- 
vise more sensitive and accurate 
ways to assess networks' subtle 
dynamic electrical activity. 

probabilistic interactions, and 
switching of interconnections. It's 
a very plastic system with micro- 
circuitry that's constantly chang- 
ing, right under your nose." 

Computer engineers are pay- 
ing close attention. "In designing 
neural networks, they had only 
the single-cell model," Gross 
says. "Now their work has slowed 
because their model is incom- 
plete. They know how to mimic a 
neuron, but not the system." 

But further the lab team seeks 
to penetrate the fundamental se- 
crets of the tiny cell clusters. 
"We're seeing major behaviors 
unique to small networks and not 
to single cells," Gross adds. 
"That's critical, because every- 
thing we are — the A to Z of all in- 
telligence, and even of all 
sensorimotor processing above 
the jellyfish level — is locked up in 
spatiotemporal patterns that 
originate with and are sustained 
by these small groups of neurons. 
We are moving farther away from 
the old engineering models that 
say if you connect a wire from A 
to B, it means something, and if 
you connect it from A to C you 
get a completely different result. 
The neural system is not that de- 
terministic. There's a tremendous 
amount of redundancy built in, 

Gross collaborates with several 
software and computer design- 
ers. "Within a few years, the 
emergent properties could easily 
be applied to computer design," 
Gross says, "leading to very 
plastic computers — and to an 
understanding of the mechan- 
isms of human intelligence." 

Gross's experiments in "fault 
tolerance" may lead to new ways 
to protect people. "We know little 
about the effects of cumulative 
insults to the brain. A doctor might 
say, 'This pilot took a hit in the 
head yesterday, but his neurolog- 
ical tests are normal, so we'll let 
him fly.' However, there's no way 
to know how much of a second 
insult is necessary to bring that 
neural system to catastrophic 
failure. That's another part of 
what we're working on. "DO 


□ CHECK □ 





GPS and CD-ROM work together to help you get where you're going 

By Denny Atkin 


The U.S. Departim 
highly-qualified a 
are earning overi 
repair field is larg 
growth throaghoii 

i oneer's GPS- 
X77 system 

It's been used to navigate the 
high seas, locate lost hikers, 
coordinate balloon races, plan 
pesticide application, guide air- 
planes in for safe landings, and 
target precision bombs. Now the 
Global Positioning System (GPS) 
can help you track down the air- 
port in a strange city, find your 
way around Wine Country, or just 
locate the nearest pizza place. 

Pioneer's $2,850 GPS-X77 
system gives your car a precision 
moving map display similar to 
the ones that guide jet fighters to 
their targets. The four-piece sys- 
tem includes a low-profile GPS 
antenna, a wireless remote con- 

inftimation from 
GPS satel- 
lites, providing 
your car 
with a real-time 
moving map. 

trol, a color LCD monitor, and a 
control unit containing a GPS re- 
ceiver, microprocessor, and CD- 
ROM drive. 

The car's position is continu- 
ously updated using the GPS 
network, which consists of 24 
satellites, a control center, and a 
portable receiver. Each satellite 
contains a very accurate atomic 
clock, as well as a computer and 
radio. The GPS control center 
calculates the orbit of each satel- 
lite a week or so into the future, 
as well as ionospheric conditions 
(which affect the permeability of 
the atmosphere to GPS radio 
waves) at that time, and uploads 

this information to the satellite's 
computer. The satellite can tell 
where it is in the sky at any given 
microsecond by cross-referenc- 
ing this data with the time indi- 
cated by its atomic clock. Each 
satellite continuously transmits its 
position and the current time. 

A GPS receiver works by lis- 
tening for satellites that are 
scheduled to be above the hori- 
zon, comparing the satellite loca- 
tion and time of transmission with 
its own internal clock. By com- 
paring multiple signals, the GPS 
receiver can triangulate its own 
location (three satellite signals 
are needed to determine latitude 
and longitude, while four are 
needed if you also need a pre- 
cise altitude reading). 

Most portable GPS receivers 
simply provide you with your lo- 
cation using latitude and longi- 
tude, or using the Universal 
Transverse Mercator grid system. 
Once you have the data, you pull 
out a map and manually deter- 
mine your location. 

Pioneer's GPS-X77 system 
does away with the need to deal 
with the raw numbers. It takes 
the GPS data and cross-refer- 
ences it with a database stored 
on CD-ROM. It then displays the 
car's approximate location — ac- 
curate to within about 100 me- 
ters—on its five-inch LCD 
monitor. The GPS system itself is 
capable of much more precise 
positioning, but the precision 
data is only available to ap- 
proved (mostly government and 
allied military) users. The preci- 
sion data is encrypted to prevent 
its use as a targeting system by 
hostile military powers. 

As the car moves, the GPS- 
X77 tracks the vehicle's direc- 
tion, latitude, longitude, altitude, 
and speed in real time, updating 
its moving map once a second. 
The map display can be 
switched between showing the 

direction the vehicle is heading 
at the top of the screen, or with 
North always at the top. 

The system doesn't just show 
you where you are — it tells you 
how to get where you're going. 
Select a location or enter a desti- 
nation address and the GPS-X77 
will plot a route; you can also 
manually enter arrows on the 
screen to indicate turns. As you 
drive, the system provides in- 
structions such as "left turn 
ahead" or "final destination 
ahead." Routes can be stored 
and recalled for later use. 

CD-ROM map databases are 
available for Southern California, 
Northern California, and the Pa- 
cific Northwest (Seattle, Port- 
land, Vancouver, and Tacoma 
metro areas, plus major freeways); 
each costs $150. A Midwest U.S. 
data disk is also in the works. If 
you move out of the database 
area, the system will still display 
location data such as latitude 
and longitude. 

Each CD also includes listings 
for tens of thousands of locations 
in 90 categories, including lodg- 
ing, shopping, entertainment, 
medical, and food. Many of these 
are further broken down, so it's 
possible, for example, to search 
for Italian restaurants in the im- 
mediate area. Address and 
phone information is provided for 
each listing. 

And the GPS-X77 is only first- 
generation technology. As with 
all electronics, Pioneer's Mark 
Epstein says, the GPS navigation 
systems will likely get more pow- 
erful and less expensive in time. 
One possible enhancement is 
the integration of real-time data 
transmission with the system, 
giving instant access to travel 
conditions. "We may eventually 
see true route guidance and na- 
tionwide coverage, as well as 
traffic and road-condition re- 
ports," Epstein says. OO 

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Turning an ear toward the future of acoustics 

By Byron Poole 

The Auditioner 
lets users listen 
to a building's 
acoustics before 
it's toe late, 
preventing an un- 
told number 
of headaches. 

■ f% ■ hen the German gov- 
I ; I lernment moved to 
U U the new parliament 
building in Bonn, officials found 
themselves in the middle of an 
embarrassing and costly mis- 
take: The acoustics were so poor, 
with announcements so garbled, 
they were forced to move out the 
next day. Millions of dollars were 
directed into renovations before 
legislators would return. 

Such sonic fiascos aren't un- 
common. New York City's Avery 
Fisher Hall suffered from poor 
acoustics for years before being 
rebuilt in 1976. 

Designing sound for public 
venues carries one intrinsic handi- 
cap: You don't know how a build- 
ing will sound until it's built. By 
then, fixing what would be minor 
problems in the planning phase 
often becomes a major financial 
undertaking. With a finger on to- 
day's architectural pulse, a hand- 
ful of companies is developing 
tools to help builders prevent 
these acoustic disasters. For ex- 
ample, coming from the field of 
high-end audio, Bose Corpora- 
tion has recently introduced the 
Auditioner system, which allows 
engineers to hear inside a build- 
ing before it is erected. 

"This new technology 
seemed impossible five 
sago," says Dr. Amar 

G. Bose, chairman of the board for 
Bose and a professor of electri- 
cal engineering at MIT. Bose first 
approached this handicap over a 
decade ago with a computer- 
based design program called 
Modeler, Only recently, however, 
has the technology surfaced to 
reach the Modeler's ' 

With the Modeler 
program, an engi- 
neer constructs a 
computerized room 
model from archi- 
tectural plans by 
inputting a room's 
acoustically rele- 
vant surfaces (any 
surface greater than 
one meter), and 
designating a spe- 
cific building material for each. 
Next, a sound system is designed 
using a database of different sound 
sources, such as a loudspeaker, 

These parameters set, the re- 
sulting data from Modeler can be 
used to see if the chosen sound 
system satisfies the conditions 
for a well-tuned room. Is every- 
one in the audience covered with 
sound? Is it loud enough for 
its function? And most obviously, 
is the speech coming from 
le speakers intelligible 
and echo-free? 
But Modeler and 
peting systems didn't 

allow the engineer and potential 
client to hear what a given envi- 
ronment would sound like. Audi- 
tioner takes the next step, enabling 
both client and engineer to "walk 
inside" a computer model, choose 
a seat anywhere within, and lis- 
ten to how sound reaches it. 
Creating realistic sound di- 
rectly from a com- 
puter model clearly 
presented some 
complications. Pre- 
dicting the path 
sound will travel 
through a room and 
into a listener's ears 
required elaborate 
new experimental 
algorithms to ex- 
tend Modeler's cal- 
culating ability. New sound-filter- 
ing techniques were also required 
to produce a room's full sound, 
along with a playback system to 
deliver the processed audio sig- 
nals directly into the ears. 

Remarkably, Auditioner can 
create an acoustical model of a 
room in five minutes, and an au- 
ditorium in one day. The accu- 
racy between the real environ- 
ment and the modeled environ- 
ment is high, reportedly within 
five percent. In A/B authentica- 
tion experiments, listeners, my- 
self included, sometimes noticed 
faint differences between the en- 
vironments, but were unable to 
determine which was the real 
room. Try putting a visual virtual 
world to such a test. 

Among the first public buildings 
with sound systems designed by 
Auditioner for public scrutiny will 
be the 60,000-seat Ullevi Sta- 
dium in Gfiteborg, Sweden. As 
more companies come forward 
with other approaches for purg- 
ing public buildings of poor 
sound, the range of excuses for 
missing trains, planes, and court 
pagings should be, for better or 
worse, greatly lessened.OO 



A tech manual that virtually beams you onto the Enterprise 

By Gregg Keizer 


Iext to some snippets of 
Roosevelt, Kennedy, 
King, or Armstrong, I'm 
betting that the words most likely 
to come up in the trowel of a fu- 
ture audio archaeologist study- 
ing this century are Star and 
Trek. If there's a TV show with 
legs— and the lifespan of a vam- 
pire—it's Star Trek and its gener- 
ational cousins. 

The franchise has already 
spawned a full shelf of computer 
and video entertainment, from 
the excellent computer-based 
Star Trek: 25th Anniversary to the 
so-so Star Trek: The Next Gener- 
ation videogame, Futures 
Past. But nothing com- 
pares with the experience 
you'll have exploring the 
best Star Trek title so far; 
Simon & Schuster Interac- 
tive's Star Trek: The Next 
Generation Interactive 
Technical Manual. 

A dry-as-Bones name 
like that probably fills your 
head with images of blue- 
prints, exploded views, 
and jargon-filled descrip- 
tions. Wrong, Number 
One. Those things are in 
this Windows and Macin- 
tosh CD-ROM, but they' 
from its focus. 

Using some ultra-cool tech- 
nology out of Apple's R&D labs, 
ITM puts you on the deck of a 
galaxy-class starship, the Enter- 
prise NCC-1701D. Once there, 
you can rubberneck as if you 
were a guest who'd just beamed 
aboard. Though parts of the En- 
terprise are off-limits (or seem- 
ingly so, since they're not acces- 
sible), you can visit the bridge, 
main engine room, sick bay, 
transporter room, Ten-Forward, 
the captain's ready room, the ob- 
servation lounge, holodeck, and 
the cabins of Picard, Troi, Data, 
and Worf. You can also take a 
jaunt outside the ship's hull to get 

a shutt lee raft-eye view of the ex- 
terior from every angle. 

And these views aren't just 
static, as if some old admiral with 
a bad toupee was boring you 
with a slide show, ITM uses 
QuickTime VR, a technology that 
seamlessly melds photos in a 
360-degree panorama. The mak- 
ers of this CD went on the show's 
set, took scads of pictures, then 
used QuickTime VR to piece to- 
gether the scenery in wrap- 
around images. You can pan 
around in a complete circle and 
zoom in for close looks. Even 
more impressive, you can pick 

up many objects i. 
them, rotating them in any direc- 
tion. Throughout, the images 
show little distortion. On a ma- 
chine with enough memory, they 
shift quickly, and even when you 
stop the shot at an angle, the 
edges are relatively smooth. 

Here's how it works. You're 
standing on the bridge. In fact, 
you can stand in any of 14 spots 
on the bridge. Grab the mouse, 
then move it side to side, up or 
down in the window. Your view 
changes accordingly, Want to 
stand at the tactical station, right 
behind the captain's chair? Fine. 
Look around, as if you were 
twisting your head or spinning in 
place. You can even look up, No- 

tice the circular skylight showing 
stars? i didn't know that was 
there — did you? Or head to Pi- 
card's quarters, and look closely 
at the flute that arrived in the 
Kataan probe in the episode, 
"The Inner Light." 

The effect is as if you'd 
stepped aboard the ship — or at 
least the set. The place is eerily 
empty, since there's no one there 
but you and the sounds of the 
ship. Actually, you're not quite 
alone, since the Enterprise's 
computer is there to explain 
everything from the abandon- 
ship protocol to the configuration 
of the captain's yacht. As 
in the series, Majel Barrett 
Roddenberry does the 
voice for the computer. 
Other company comes in 
the form of text, short ani- 
mation sequences, and 
blueprint-like diagrams of 
the ship. You can even 
move between parts of 
the ship by zipping 
through the corridors and 
turbolifts. Very cool. 

You can't just go wan- 
dering wherever you 
want — you're restricted to 
specific locales and within 
them, the spots from which the 
panoramas were shot — but the 
trip is still awesome for anyone 
who's logged hours watching the 
show. If you're even an occa- 
sional Star Trek fan, you must get 
this CD-ROM. 

You say 600 megabytes of 
Star Trek info isn't enough for 
you? Hit the Internet and check 
out the World Wide Web page at 
http://www. cosy. sbg. ac. a't/rec/- 
startrek/index.html (you'll need 
a Web browser like Mosaic or 
Netscape). This page holds links 
to all kinds of nifty Trekker stuff, 
from pictures and sound bites to 
episode summaries and the 
ever-fun-to-read Star Tre^-related 

An encyclopedia 
for the Trekker 
in us all, the Inter- 
active Technical 
Manual lakes you 
on the grand 
tour ol everyone's 
favorite star- 
ship— no holodeck 


Researchers want to send spacecraft to Pluto — before it's too late 

By Bill Lawren 

It was both a death and a res- 
urrection: In June 1993, as- 
tronomers finally ruled out the 
existence of Planet X— the 
ephemeral, now-you-see-it-now- 
you-don't "tenth planet." With the 
demise of Planet X, that old fa- 
vorite Pluto regained its claim as 
the most distant of our neighbor- 
hood planets. Yet despite its now 
thoroughly established place in 
the solar pantheon, in many ways 

Pluto remains the most mysteri- 
ous of the sun's children. 

Hoping to unravel some of 
those mysteries, scientists are 
now mapping an ambitious plan 
to get an up-close look at Pluto 
and its moon, Charon. The mis- 
sion—known as the Pluto Ex- 
press — would entail sending a 
pair of spacecraft on an eight- to 
ten-year journey across the solar 
system, climaxing with an ex- 
quisitely organized frenzy of ob- 
servation, measurement, and 
picture-taking as the two space- 
craft whiz by Pluto at 12 miles 
per second, 

The payoff from this first close 

encounter with Pluto could come in 
the form of answers to a number of 
questions that have been nagging 
scientists since the planet's discov- 
ery in 1930. First of all, they want to 
know where Pluto and Charon 
came from. The planet and its 
satellite don't look much like any- 
thing else in the solar system ex- 
cept Neptune's moon, Triton. 
Close-up measurements of their 
surface composition might provide 
valuable clues to their origins. 

Flyby observation would also 
aid immeasurably in mapping 
Pluto's icy surface, providing 
clues to her geology and temper- 
ature. Scientists hope it will per- 
haps even reveal the presence 
of previously undiscovered satel- 
lites or a planetary ring system. 

Equally important, flyby ob- 
servation could also help deter- 
mine the exact composition of 
Pluto's off-again, on-again at- 
mosphere. As the planet moves 
away from the sun on its 248- 
year journey around that star, its 
atmosphere freezes and, in ef- 
fect, disappears. Then as it ap- 
proaches the sun and warms up, 
the atmosphere emerges anew. 

Therein lies the rub. Pluto is 
now moving away from the sun, so 
that by 2020 its atmosphere will 
most likely have virtually vanished. 
Among the information-hungry sci- 
entists planning the flyby, this cre- 
ates a sense of urgency — a sort of 
cosmic deadline. "If we could 
send a spacecraft now," says as- 
tronomer Marc Buie of the Lowell 
Observatory in Flagstaff, Ari- 
zona, "we'd learn a tremendous 
amount about Pluto. But if we 
wait 20 or 30 years, we may find 
that the party's over. It'll be 150 
years before there's an atmos- 
phere again." 

With this window of opportu- 
nity in mind, scientists planning 
the mission would like to see it 
launched by 1998. The problem, 
of course, is money. NASA ad- 

ministrators have let project lead- 
ers know that the original budget 
of $2 billion to $3 billion must be 
trimmed enormously. Now, says 
Jet Propulsion Laboratory engi- 
neer Rob Staehle, who is the pre- 
project manager for the flyby, 
"we're thinking in the neighbor- 
hood of $300 million." 

Staehle and his colleagues 
have scrambled to slash the mis- 
sion's costs. They've brought in 
college students to do a signifi- 
cant portion of the hands-on 
work and are trying to enlist the 
aid of European countries in 
building some of the spacecraft 
instrumentation, And talk of a 
collaboration with the Russians, 
who might contribute at least one 
of the launch rockets, has grown 
increasingly serious. 

The Russians might then 
piggy-back an instrument-laden 
"daughter" probe to be dropped 
off on an impact trajectory with 
Pluto, snapping pictures during 
its kamikaze dive to the surface. 

But perhaps the most impres- 
sive cost-cutting effort lies in the 
ingenious microminiaturization of 
the spacecraft's scientific instru- 
ments. In fact, the biggest com- 
ponent — the radio dish antenna — 
measures only about 1.5 meters 
across, leading JPL scientists to 
liken the vehicles to "nuclear- 
powered woks," Researchers ex- 
pect the total instrument package 
to weigh in at less than 20 pounds, 
unbelievably light compared to 
the half-ton and up heft of instru- 
ments on other planetary missions. 

Still, given budget constraints 
and a space program badly tar- 
nished by the Mars Observer fail- 
ure, can the Pluto Express really 
get airborne? "I think so," 
Staehle says. "All the motions are 
in that direction." 

After all, he asks, "what could 
be more challenging than going 
to the farthest, coldest, darkest 
planet in the solar system?"DO 


A family vacation 

By Chris Krejlgaard 

Hop in the car, strap on 
your seat belt, and 
brush up on your pre- 
historic reptile names. This is one 
family vacation you'll never for- 
get. It's a dinosaur hunt. All you'll 
need is a little time, a road map, 
and a bit of imagination. Dinosaur 
fossils are scattered all over 
North America, and if you're will- 
ing to get your hands dirty you 
might just dig up some bones. 

The first stop takes you off In- 
terstate 91 in Connecticut, where 
hundreds of dinosaur footprints 
have been found. Some prints 
found at Dinosaur State Park 
may have belonged to Coelophy- 

T.rex fossil in 

Canada, or 

stroll through 

sis, a long-necked carnivorous 
dinosaur which hunted in packs 
like wolves. Other tracks may 
have belonged to the mysterious 
Eubrontes, a track species simi- 
lar to Dilophosaurus, a carnivo- 
rous, ornamental crested dinosaur 
usually found in Arizona. When 
the exhibit center's 122-foot geo- 
desic dome reopens in Novem- 
ber, you can see a full-size 
reconstruction of a Dilophosaurus, 
as well as segments of the track- 
way and a number of other fos- 
sils. Remind your parents to 
pack cooking oil, paper towels, 
10 pounds of plaster of Paris, 
and a bucket, and you can make 
a cast of a Eubrontes track to 

take home as a souvenir. 

The open road beckons as 
you head 2,000 miles west to the 
outdoor museum at Dinosaur 
Ridge in Denver. In 1877 the di- 
nosaur rush west started here 
with the discovery of the first 
Stegosaurus fossils. Stegosaurus 
was an armor-plated herbivorous 
dinosaur which weighed over 
five tons and was from 20 to over 
30 feet long. You can also see 
fossils of Allosaurus, Apatosaurus, 
and tracks of tguanodons. After 
looking at the fossils and casts of 
over 350 tracks, you can walk in 
the 100-miilion-year-old foot- 
prints of the dinosaurs. 

Less than an hour away from 
Dinosaur Ridge is the Morrison 
Natural History Museum. It fea- 
tures a display of dinosaur eggs, 
models, and footprints, as well 
as a digging pit where you can 
unearth fossils and identify what 
you've found. Unfortunately, you 
have to leave the specimens in 
the pit for future diggers. You 
can even help local fossil hunters 
remove Stegosaurus bones from 
sandstone blocks taken from Di- 
nosaur Ridge. 

Turn on the heater and bundle 
up because the next leg of the 
trip takes you across the border 
into Canada. Since its discovery 
more than a century ago, over 
300 dinosaur remains have been 
removed, and 150 complete 
skeletons have been found in Di- 
nosaur Provincial Park in Alberta. 
In fact, the entire area proved so 
rich in fossils that the park was 
declared a World Heritage Site- 
meaning it has universal value. 
Of the 35 different species found 
in the park, the most common 
are the duck-billed and the 
horned dinosaurs. Tour the park 
via bus or, if you need to stretch 
your legs, hike into the natural 
preserve or along the trackways. 

Two hours north you'll find the 
Royal Tyrrell Museum of Paleon- 

tology, named for Joseph Burr 
Tyrrell, who discovered the first 
dinosaur fossils here in 1884, For 
a hands-on adventure, roll up 
your sleeves and step into the 
museum's Nova Discovery Room. 
It features a simulated bone bed 
where you can dress like a pale- 
ontologist and chip away at fos- 
sils, or view smaller specimens 
through a microscope. During 
July and August, you can take 
part in Day Digs at a nearby di- 
nosaur quarry. The museum pro- 
vides the equipment and lunch, 
you provide the enthusiasm. 

Take a break from hiking and 
digging and stop by Science 
North in Ontario. Built with kids in 
mind, their recently expanded 
fossil laboratory contains a num- 
ber of 430-mi 1 1 ion-year-old fossils 
of coral, braciopods, and nau- 
tiloids. Learn how to uncover fos- 
sils through acid etching, and 
prepare and identify them after 
they've been uncovered. The 
center also features two exam- 
ples of living fossils: the fire sala- 
mander and the leopard gecko. 
These animals have been around 
since the days of the dinosaurs. 
After working with fossils, ex- 
plore the rest of the science cen- 
ter. There are exhibits on 
everything from the biosphere to 
the infosphere. 

The great thing about dino- 
hunting vacations is that everyone 
wins. Your parents will love the 
educational value, and the fact 
that they'll be able to set their own 
itinerary. You'll love the recreational 
value, and the fact that you'll be 
able to dig all day and not get 
yelled at. For information on mu- 
seums and fossil sites in your 
area contact your state's depart- 
ment of conservation or the Di- 
nosaur Society at 800-346-6366. 
This nonprofit group publishes 
the First Annual Guide to Vaca- 
tioning with the Dinosaurs, which 
is available for a $5 donation.DO 


A big bang in science publishing 

By Richard Farr 


ir than 
200 pages That's the briel lor an 
impressive list ot aulhors in Basic 
Books' new Science Masters se- 
ries. Minsky on artificial intelli- 
gence. Gould on paleontology. 
Smoot on cosmology, Dennett On 
cognitive science, Dawkins on 

picture. So far, 22 

in case that doesn't impress you. 
the series will be publis' ' 
multaneously by 16 put 
from Sweden to Korea, 
guages which include Chinese. 
Czech, Hungarian. Norwegi 
and Slovene. 

the allotted space, of physic: 
from the origins of bipedalism lo quite work. 

s which <f 

doesn't tall Into the popularr/or's 
trap of cheerleading the field and 
leaving you with an exaggerated 
view of its coherence. He con- 
veys his love for anthropology 

■ boundary i.o:'dil,On 
wormholes lunges Irom ovei 
pliflcation to total opacity anc 
back again in the space ol a para- 
graph. The inevitable compari- 
son is Weinberg's book, which 
has Ihe same subject, the same 

d Euro) 

I humanity origi- 
nated in Africa) and that it is full 
of lierce, oflen angry dispute 
(Was Ramapitlfecus an ape or a 
hominid? How many species in 
Ihe Hadar fossils? Have we really 
proved the mitochondrial Eve hy- 
pothesis?). He ei 

\. These books a 

s by Paul 

□avies, and Tha Origin ol Hu- 
mankind by Richard Leakey- 
give a fascinating glimpse of 

lo cheer lea di 
atoUS delight 

nessof Inquiry. 
John D. Ba 


;:ir:i;:, ;:[,;(: CI : 

The materia 
also recently c 

a fine little 

anthropology which explains 

guides while giving 

is Leakeys. II 

discipline. Leakey will always 
stop long enough lo define a 

economical lhat he fits a huge 

a book written by Steven 
Weinberg [The First Three Min- 
utes. 1977, revised 1988). Barrow 
explains some issues particularly 
well — such as why the steady- 
state theory died, why cosmo- 
logical predictions help theory - 
Idng in particle physics and 
a, whytheCOBE satel- 

ol translating difficult theory into 
ordinary language. 

Other authors in the Basic 
pipeline include linguist Steven 
Pinker, mathematician Ian Slew- 
Gel I -Mann, paleobioiogisl Lynn 
Margulis, and physicist Freeman 
Dyson. No series on this scale 
can hope for unilormily; but. it's a 

prestigious il glows in the dark, 



Sonnets find their way into chemistry class. Pius, building up a rat's 
self-image, and logging on at lunch 

"1 wish to propose Ihe following 

ducational technique 

Collections — is drven bv similar motives. "Poetry helps 

which should prove equally effective (or Harvard [Uni- 

me understand the world in a way I hat's complementary 

versity] and ShrevppriiT i iigh Sciiocl ' ytfaliter Percy wrote 

to science," Hoffmann says. "It's just another way of get- 

in his book. The Message in the Bottle. "1 propose that 

ting at the essence of things." Although he cannot recall 

English poetry and biology should be taught as usual. 

any instances where paeiy r: eery rv'luenced his scien- 

but that at Irregular rite-vals. poetry students should tlnd 

tific work, he has noticed slriking parallels: "At a cerlain 

dogfishes on their desks and biology students should 

point, a poem seems to take on an existence of its own. 

lind Shakespeare sonnets on their dissection boards.'" 

Sometimes when I'm working on a theoretical problem. I 

For the past 15 years. Dudley Herschbach has done 

get that very same leeling." 

something very similar in re oasic ohonisty classes lie 

Herschbach, too, finds much in common between the 

leaches al Harvard. Twice a year, he gives his studenls 

two disciplines. "Poetry is do-so :o science when you're 

launching something new," 

ing them to write a poem med- * Harvard professor asks he says.""! always (eel that 

Hating on some of Ihe big his chemistry students to write poetry wr ,en I'm struggling m:\\ I i-.o 

ideas— such as thermody- I 

namics or quantum mechan- 

H^IK^boIbkI been there all the time. There's 

term. Herschbach offers the 

assignment partly out of a love 

■I the sense that this feels right." 

for poetry and partly as a way 

■\j_ I He hopes that his chem- 

to help students unwind. But 

g - - J something like that while writ- 

da: Through poetry, he hopes I 

"|,"r~; B ing a poem. That experience, 

to change people's attitudes 


-" " H in turn, may give them a bet- 

"Students get the impression 


""*>« ' x 9 ence - Ttl e fact is that many of 

that they're learning a Irozen 

^^ "v^ ■•3U h 's students have never tried 
,-.^t^ ■- '-'jW, to write- a poem before and, 

body of dogma which allows 

little leeway for their own think- I 
ing," says Herschbach, co- 

^^^rV -.. H to gp about it. "In science, too, 

r™"^ H we often don't know how to 

prize in chemistry. "This is sad 

H proceed at first," Herschbach 

because the actual doing ol I 

H says. "We grope along, run 

cerned about getting it right. to help thorn gala a bettor feel tor In all likelihood, he says. 

When you're working on the the practice of science. writing a poem comes closer 

frontiers of science, nobody 

to real science than anything 

knows whats right or wrong. You can keep getting it wrong. 

over and over again, and it's perfectly okay, because the 

"'hese students have to get beyond the idea that the 

uuth waits patiently for you. It does not change. If you are 

subject is something that belongs to the authorities, the 

persistent, you may eventually get there." 

'establishment' Unless they can get beyond that and 

The most important thing, in both poelry and science. 

begin to play arourd ivm deal, ' than /ust memo- 

is not whether you're right or wrong, but whether you're 

rizing formulas, they'll never make the transition to 

asking an interesting question." The ultimate goal, he 

becoming a scientist who does interesting, original 

says, is to find something that gives us a new perspec- 

work." Science, he adds requires a playlul attitude— a 

t he world. 

mind open to all kinds of possibilities. "Thai's what poetry 

Roald Hoffmann of Cornell University— another Nobel 

is all about— 50il.e ill ir-:j vivid. .;iv::x:i; : .-.r-^. offering line 

laureate in chemistry, as well as th 

e author of two poetry 

delights and surprises along the way."— STEVE NADIS 




.. • w 1 

Nalu'iHl I lisloryand the 
Mongolian Academy of Sci- 

Sunless tanning lotions merely 

II ^A. 

•* ' Wt 

- §k 

* ^ 

ccvery ol an embryo of a 

actually screening out harm- 

A *^Stj 

meat-eating dinosaur, re- 

* - •*.■•% 

tigators at the Boston Univer- 

m f* 

sity School of Medicine 


taken identity in the history 

are trying to develop a com- 

of paleontology. The new 

pound that will give peo- 

embryo — which Norell says 

ple the protection of a suntan 

is probably an ovirap- 

before they go out In the 

lorid— was found in the same 

sun. They are looking to the 

•• *- 


type of egg lhat had been 

qeieiL- inalerialof skin 

Galled a Proloceialops egg. 

cells-DNA— for answers. 


proving lhat the eggs 

"Ultraviolet (UV) light 


were actually laid by a meat- 

can damage the DNA of all 



living cells," says Mark 

• v 

T _ 


Eller, a researcher in the 

school's dermatology 


of vertebrate paleontology 

department. He and his col- 


leagues, Mina Yaar and 


coverer of the embryo. 

Barbara Gilchresl. hope to 


says the approximately 60- 

figure out how human pig- 



million-year-old embryo 

ment cells react to UV expo- 

^u ▼ 

was found at Ukhaa To/god, 

sure. What triggers the 


Mongolia n its original 

SOS response whisii cause:. 

w o 11 within the egg, curled 

the cells to try to protect 

rlzed that if they put DNA 
fragments into cells, the cells 
might recognize these 



embryo, the scientists also 
uncovered two liny skulls of 


Iragmenls as parts of DNA 


dromaeosaurs. "The egg 

that were damaged by 
UV irradiation. The cells 

shell is ■;.■£■ i-D r eserved," notes 

Noiel. bin both skulls are 

■.-.■hier ■.vcio being kept 


broken indicating that they 


■.voio probably leftover 

more pigment. 

ooil iso re .uonded 

meals taken by parents to 

Laboratory exec munis 

by making more pigment. 

In 1923 Roy Chapman An- 

have supported this the- 

Mary qi. est ions need 

o'e.vs .j.-io a team of 

The mystery ol why the dif- 

ory. For example, a DNA frag- 

to he answered be'ere the 

ment, pTpT, was dissolved 

substance can be applied' Natural History 

tound in the same nest can't 

in solution and applied to the 

made the first discovery of 

be solved with the infor- 

skin ol guinea pigs twice 

researchers need to find 

uaily ro 1 fivo days. Several 

out whether guinea pigs are. 

Flaming Clills in Mongolia. 

weeks later, the spot that 

in -'so; she'dcrl '!>■/ u-c aril- 

I -e eggs ir the nests 

uisscvory 'lints at lasomatnxi 

1 dally i'd...oed Ian. "It looks 

were presumed to be of Pro- 

and complex dinosaur be- 

started lo grow darker and 

like a normal suntan, so 

loceralops, a small, plant- 

havior. — Mary Ann Tawasha 

stayed darker for nearly two 

you might assume that it does 

nroieot them." Eller says. 

"Memory is what tells 

creased pigmentation When 

a man lhal his wiles birlh- 

the same DNA fragment 

a team of scienlisls Irom 

was applied to human cells. 

case: 1 Steve Nadis 

the American Museum of 

— Mario Rocco 


Jim Edwards has figured 
amour t ol paper products 

Ordinary paper can't be 

™ In nacomposa. In- 
stead, Edwards has tried 
rjrrdny up a mix of pa- 
per products and animal t,-: 
rjs and spreading Hon 
i elds m the form of small pt 
lets about hall an inch in 

Alter the mixture 

t runoff and 

erosion was reduced by 
about 40 and 95 
respectively. The 

ose. On lop of it 

?r job of inhibiting 

lland along with paper 
pellets. According to 

Edwards, mixed paper and 
void trimmings constitute 
ly 60 percent ol the raw 
irial placed in land- 






I, if adopted, could 

id waste problem. 
The bigges; u'-coriamiy 

1 | | 

Techies can munch out while checking their E-mafl. surfing the 

Web. or playing Doom a! the INFOMARTs- High Tech Cale. 


Suerry Ui'wac. lighting («- 


lures built Irom old video 

when eating out be- 

computer hardware. There 

cause they're away from 

their Internet access 

: . ■.::.:.-. V: .'•■;; - ly. 

might want to visit the High 

including ":he first lax 

Tech Cale at Dallas's IN- 

modem and a bottle of 

FOMART. Seating is avail- 

smoking, and modem- 

nology providers and 

plete with power outlets 

buyers together. Voss says. 

and phone jacks). 

In 1994 about 400.000 

Visitors can enjoy items 

people visited the 1.6 mil- 

like the Virtual Burger 

lion-square-foot facility. 

(made from turkey breast), 

CD-ROM-ano Chicken, 

trade shows. INFO- 

the Mother Board (a slutted 

MART's Corporate Evalua- 

potato), and Token 

tion Centers, where 

Onion Rings. Bar otfe rings 

major corporals Informa- 

include the Fatal Error 

tion Technology groups 

and the Hard Disk Crash. 

take residence at INFO- 

What about those 

MART "td evaluate tech- 

without computers? Not to 

nology on a daily rcal-iime 

worry, replies David E. 

basis and do crucial con- 

Voss, vice president of op- 

cept testing," are popular 

erations for INFOMART. 

belween meals. Vbss says. 

"We have a couple of com- 

At almost any happy 

puters ddwn there that 

hour you'll find iapaa ua«rs 

al the High Tech Cafe's 

"The architectural 

tables. Says Voss: "They're 

eclectic technology." 

plugged in. They're, using 

Voss says, including a wait 

sraiion made from a 

-J. Blake Lambert 


Cylowic concludes 
The Man Who 
Shapes, that, al- 

" perceive the 

id geometric shapes 

and patterns. Or hearing 
green wavy symphonies, 
:? ibI i'T; ni.rple odors, or even 
ser-siny voices that are 
golden brown, vjilh a flavor 
ol crisp, buttery toast. 
These surreal perceptions 

Dili, ir-voluntary sensations 
caused by syneslhesia. 
Attempting to illuminate Ihese 
sensory fusions seems as 
hopeless as expl.'.n', rig sir;": 
to someone born blind. Af- 

In 1979 neurologist Dr. 
Richard E. Cylowic mel 

Michael, who loll inn ii:-i-;x 
llavors and foods as points, 

highly competi 
niui'vo .■ r- bag wars could be 
a side-impact safety ban. 
patented recenlly by General 
Motors, designed to pro- 
[,.:,. 1 pas-fingers in both front 

Injuries olten occur in side 
i-r.piioU .vlien the car door 
collapses. The pjten:cd ver- 
sion al the inflatable bag 
■.v,;i iii" ■].■: inside ■.vr'i.ii .iulu 



a legal reuuin.-noiTs : oi 
bags. One of the ■: >:-.: -s= 1. : 1 ■■:.; 

of GM's version f.aici Pal 
"3,309— surely r-uu rr_- 

r" upon impact The au- 


Global Response is an envi- 
lakes action by encouraging 

0'i-ii vviN pc'iwfci.'.y "■'.'lI'jv 
readers ol particular Glob- 
al Response actions. !o ioin 
Giotm! Response, write to 
Box 7490, Boulder, Colorado 


River and slate Oulii-i'diiig 
Water Resource. 

Crandon Mining Company 

mile long and up to 2.800 
feet below the surface. 
The projected 25-year oper- 
ator, would extract 55 

ditional way of life. 

"The company : , talking 
about using experimental 
technologies to iso:;i*c the 

done before. But on; :nbe hs= 

Wo n-inw how I" mo'eot ths 


i':i::itr Mining Council 

"It's not just an Indian is- 
, .. s iy: i ranees Van 
Zilu =i Sukaocon-CMiprjcvvii 
■jirmc'-rchsr. "Our '.valor 

Bill Tans, project manage 
r-r Wisconsin's Deparl- 
ment ol Natural Resources, 
says if fi department is 
rav : iiwifj Ciandon's plans 

ar Tommy Thompson, 
teCapilol. PO B:.:' T'Sc-3. 

n 53707; 
I to Bill Tans. Department 

n 53707.-Elizaboll- Oailo 

■^Hb 7 ^ 

Pennsylvania, who sug- 

explode," "People who pes- 

expression ol direct ag- 

gests that aboul 38 percent 

ter ma are looking lor a 

gression, and 27 percent of 

or ,-,ur irr lability can be 

punch in the nose," and 

a tendency to use insult- 

ascribed to genetics, the 

"Sometimes people both- 

ing or hostile language to 

er me just by being around." 

display verbal aggression. 

Coccaro, who directs 

The psychiatrist, who has 

m £ >fir 

from four subsets of the 

the college's clinical nsuro- 

used pharmaco-challenge 

f IT 

standard Bush-Durkee Hos- 

lility Index, Coccaro came 

told the American Psyc-iiilric 

between aggression 

viewing 182 seis of iden- 

in.a. twins (with identical 

gene is responsible for ag- 

genes) and another 1 18 

mare otten than those ol the 

gressive behavior. "I sus- 

p-ns ci '. i. .iternal twins (whose 

fraternal group. By com- 

pect we will find that there 


genes don't match]. He 

paring them, he concluded 

is no such thing as a 

(hat genetics is at the root 

violence gene and that ag- 

il /■■■■l. ve g-jl a grumpy dis- 

ol 40 percent ol a person's 

tendency to break Things 

result of a polygenetic trait 

on your parents, says psy- 

boil to have people make 

combination, a series of 

ohaln?t "mil Coccaro 

tun of me," "I often feel like 

acgisssi-n. 33 percent 

□1 the Medical College of 

a powder keg ready to 

ci slrkin;:i someone as an 

—George Nobbe 



acterized by the gr 


layer of the ice. and this un- 


The movement of glaciers 

Irozen layer attracts addi- 

A few years ago, Jamie 

tional water and impurities. 

and lormed greal val rays. The 

Once one row of refriger- 

power ol ice has created 

many ol the world's great nat- 

neighboring rows turn on 

yeioped a device that can 

ural monuments, from the 

and freeze the next section of 

restore lost hearing. 

the ground. The ice broom 

The Multichannel AucHory 

scientists are learning to 

pushes impurities along until 

Brainstem Implant (Multi- 

the leading edge of the 

channel ABI) is an electrode- 

help cleanse toxins from 

storage receptacle. 

based device that trans- 
mits hearing signals to the 

A University ol Washington 

"Depending on the pipe 

i-j';-i:-v; :i ! people who do 

1 esigned 

spacing and the moisture 

and patented a new process 

lory nerve, says nauro- 

whereby an advancing 

vsntor Greg Dash, one 

tologist Dr. John House, pres- 

core of ice pushes acids, ra- 

pass through a contaminated 

ident of the House Ear 

lnsi:fjteiHEl)in Los Ange- 

heavy metals from the soil. 

les, The HEI teamed up 

Licensed to RKK Ltd. ol 

tus professor of physics 

w :h Goch ear Corporation in 

A' ii-.g;cin. Washiry.un It"' 

a: inn . Iniversity of Washing- 

Cryosweep "ice tnr 

10.-1 jays that refreezing 

channel ABI. says HEI c ni- 

i-p grojnd and repeating the 

tion pipes placed ir "is 

u'j.v".'. improves results 

ologist Steve Otto. In June of 

ground to freeze the rrcis 

-■one ijvsl u-ilrere- 

1994. the FDA approved the 

■::Kvvi,->- (or clinical study. 

The process works to 

11/. -."~:aminantsto remain 

The implant is designed 

causa Ire-zing wate' in 

aftoi a '.nglepass. 

the soil forces dissolved t ■ 

—J. Blake Lambert 

mat ion to people who have 

pit:", 1 ! in ; nm-iat on. says Olio. 
which may lead to improved 
understanding ol speech. 

Christine P. Arcia, one of 
I he patients who have had 
the surgery, said, "I began 

io hoa-" I lie first time I heard 
Steves (Otto) voice, tears 
came to my eyes." 


"dominant." The dom- 

inant rat is easy to pick out; 

He rules the roost, 

been made regarding the 

having his way with the 

salutary eflects of Pro- 

females and keeping 

sac, the antidepressant 

drug said lo boost as- 

away from the food 

and water. The subord '■ater;. 

dence, converting loners 

meanwhile, show s r,ir. 

into lowers and wallflowers 

like those of depressed 

into party animals. Neuro- 

humans: high strer.s 

scientists. in the hopes ol 

response, reduced sexual 

separating the facts 

activity, and reduced oc 

from the hype, have followec 

tivity in general. 

a time-honored strata- 

Then Prozac wa= ode:) 

gem: When in doubt, give 

out to two subordinate 

itlo rats. Sure enough, 

in each group, the other 

after receiving Prozac for 

males receiving a saiir-e 

two weeks, previously 

solution placebo. In so-no 

submissive rats held their 

cases, the tables slow , 

ground against the local 

turned. Three of the formerly 

bully. "Basically these rats 

subordinate males be- 

let it be known that they 

gan acting more like doml 

weren't going to take any- 

nants: They startec 

more abuse," explains 

having sex — a lot of sax 

Rockefeller University re- 

and they ate freely, enter- 

searcher Christina 

ing the dining and bevS'- 

McKittrick, who performed 

age quarters as they 

pleased. Their stress levels 
went down as their 

McKittrick, who 

admits to knowing more 

about rats than people. 

□isj,f> m 

regarding the implica- 

tions of this work for hu- 

mans. "1 don't think 


we should give Prozac to 
every person lacking 

in self-confidence or self- 

esteem," she says. "But 

the studies with Robert 

it does seem to help rats 

and Caroline Blanchard of 

cope with severe, chronic 

the University ol Hawaii. 

stress."— Steve Nad is 

The scientists put seven 

groups of rats (each 

"You may listen to what 

consisting of five males and 

everybody says, but the 

two females) in isolated 

fact remains that you've 

got to get out there and do 

few days until one mala 

the thing yourself. " 

established himself as the 

— Joan Sutherland 

l^cenments at MIT a'o 
stiedd ng light on how learn- 
ing oio task can fnierfere 
with the memory of anottw 
n--~ o-i now long it lake* 
foi mr -lories to became 
'i "■ , "lplanted. 

learned how to guide a 
jui so' on a computer screen 
toward a series of chang- 
ng targets. They reached the 
target cy moving a lever— 
a roootic arm— that resisted 
them in inscrutable ways. 

when they did- 
n't understand how the 
forces work. Returning a day 
later the subjects still re- 
membered how to do the 
task. This particular 
tor memory, in other words, 
s consolidated. 
However, if shortly after 
mastering the first task, 
ibjects were then given a 
■cond task— idem cal to 
e first except that the invte 
le forces had beer re 
versed— they showed no 
memory of the first r.i^-t 
when tested a day 

learning thesecc 
pletely erased th 
first. If, or 

!=jbjoc:5 ■■ 

posed 'o the second 
:t:si lour hours later, rather 
than immediately after- 
ward, 'hey retained their 
•r-.-wiedge of the first task. 

I ne experiments provide 
seme clues as to how long 
it takes for memories to be 
preserved in a permanent 
form. The memories seemed 
durable when subjects 
were tested four hours later, 
but not when testing took 
place immediately after they 


were formed. 

The experiments may have 
practical implications for 
the teaching of motor skills. 
" You should consolidate 
rho memory of one task be- 
fcie t.i-ong on a second," 
says Fmilio Bizzi, head of 
MIT's Department of 
Brain -ind Cognitive Sciences. 
fenr i> coaches, for in- 
stance, -night want to teach 
the lo'ehand one day. the 
backnjnd another, and not 
- »!ic 'wo. "— Steve Nadis 


.-nil p McGwire a[ London's 
institute of Psychiatry, re- 
cently tested this theory by 
scanning 12 male patients 

with a SPET (single photon 
oi 1 1 1 s s »o i i i : jiriog ra p hy) 
machine while the patients 
were undergoing audilnry 
haluoinalions. To detcmiri 
Ihoijia.r- regions Mai may 
be responsible for voices, M< 
Quire and Ins colleagues 

about 19 weeks later, after 
I he hallucinations had sub 
sided. A comparison of 

hemisphere — the region 
of the brain that is classics y 
associated with the gen- 
eration of speech. 

"It appears that auditory 
hallucinations are some- 
how related to 'inner speech,' 
and not just a problem in 
the auditory part ol the brain," 
McGuire notes. Inner 

speech, or thinking in words, 
is a normal process, he 
adds, but in this case "it is as 

if the brain is being tricked. 
These people seem to regard 
their own thoughts a! 


Guire says.— Steve Nad is 


this material was that 

after 60 to 90 days. "What 

thopedic-repair device to 

heeling occurred in a non- 

treat problems such as 

predictable fashion. In- 

body developed," he 

knee injuries that involve 

says. The molecu:es in the 

damage to a ligament 

served remodeling that 

material are capable of 

that runs from the femur to 



looked remarkably like nor- 

interacting with host cells, 
sending and receiving 

the tibia. The team hopes 

to expand applications tor 

The group, in conjunction 

signals that tell the material 

SIS by using it to repair 

) a group of bio- 

with Methodist Hospital 

how to " perform" like the 

muscle walls in which a her- 

in Indianapolis, has received 

Purdue Uni 

six patents to use the ma- 

aging neighboring cells 

repla cement for people with 


: . Badylak, direc- 

terial, called SIS (small-in- 

burn injuries. 

testinal submucosal, in 

At first, the team plans to 

—Mary Ann Tawasha 

use the mater- 

i:"3l Engineering Center 

now working with DePuy 

ial primarily 

ator for the proj- 

Incorporated of Warsaw, In- 

idea of using 

diana, to develop SIS 

nes to develop 

ligaments suitable for hu- 


biological rr 

* A Jfc^t 

'- j. -jafiMife 

born eight years ago. "We 

Badylak says anirra- stud- 

4jr - ■fcs, 

were looking for natural 

ies to date indicate there 

MEr' ^Mk 

bstitute for hu- 

are no problems with rejec- 

- S ^Bl 


he explains. 

tion ot the tissue and that 


» ^^»F 

"What we later observed with 

the material is undetectable 

^^ Fl 

r Wfj 

country with the same "Kirk to Enter- 
prise" communicator joke. When IBM 
wanted to imply 

OS/2 operaling system for personal 
puters was blazing fast and at the lore- 
front of technology, Ihey named it Warp. 

The science of Star Trek 
nating mixture of real science, extrapo- 

fie theorie 
pseudoscience, and pure fantasy, 
seems wildly optimistic to imagine 
well have some of the technolog' 


here's no denying 
technology is pari 

Star Trek 
their appeal— space 

creaiive lorces behind the 

sider the technology more a storytelli 

element than a central focus. 

"Star Trek is first and foremost 
the people and about the situation, and 
not about the technology," says Rick 
Slernbach. senior illustrator 



dience is exposed tc 

Fantasy Begets Reality 

The best-known technologies 

Star Trek universe came about 

some fantastic scenario to impress 
ause the 
were necessary if Gene Roddenberry 
and company were going to be able to 
produce a weekly 

limited budget, using 1960s special-ef' 
fects techniques. 

Some leaps 
allow the story to be told. If the U.S.S. 
Enterprise was going to visit strange 
new worlds on a weekly basis, " 
need a way to zoom around the galaxy 
at an amazing pace. Einstein pretly 
much ruled oul traveling faster than the 
speed of light using conventional meth- 
ods, so the warp drive — which warps 
the space around the ship to 
travel— was developed. This begat 
subspace radio, since our intrepid ex- 
plorers would be out of touch if they 
were flying around at speeds 
of times faster than their calls home. 

Other technologies came about be- 
of budgetary constraints. Show- 
ing a ship the size of the Enterprise 
landing on a different planet each 
week would be expensive; even a shut- 
tlecraft landing effect would make a 
budget. The solution 
was the transporter, which could beam 
a character from one place to anolher 
wilh no landing or docking needed — a 
high-tech concept that was inexpen- 
sive to show on film. 

While the transporter and warp drive 
concepts pioneered by the original 
Trek still seem pretty far out today, 
other equipment on that first Enterprise 

far of 

n fact, a 

Dr. McCoy's hypospray. 

jet of high-pressure gas 

inject drugs without a needle, has 

in use in hospitals for years The 

to ring displays in some modern 

gency rooms rival those of the 

iobeds in the Enterprise's sick bay, 

your vital signs without in- 
cufls, stethoscopes, or EKG 
re In the works. Even the hospi- 
:al entrance features once-futuristic au- 
slidlng doors (although they 
satisfying "whoosh "), 

>t carrying phasers 
even laser weap- 

lin of Pentagon re- 
but we do have 

ser pointers in boardrooms 
America, small laser weapons 
distant dream anymore. 
Many of us carry communicators in the 
form of cellular phones. Motorola's flip- 
phone even looks and works like a Star 
although it doesn't 

Ten years ago, most people would 
:aid it's unlikely that you would 
he cell-phone concept where 
you've got a telephone with a relatively 
small antenna, and it allows you to talk 
to a satellite up in orbit somewhere." 
says Andre Bormanis. science adviser 
for Deep Space Nine and Voyager. 
"You typically put satellites up in 

thing that has a relatively small antenna 

and is hand-held like a phone unit, 

satellite with a very large 

1 geosynchronous orbit. 

But now people are saying you can put 
a bunch of these things up in low-earth 
orbit and have a relay system that can 
pass signals from one to the other. You 
can always have one above your hori- 

a on the 

telephone handset. 

"There are certainly a tot of develop- 

leded much r 

dly t 

people imagined in the middle 
1960s, and the computer field is prob- 
ably the best example of that," Borma- 
nis says. "That's largely a function of 
the microelectronics revolution. No- 
body really anticipated that. Nobody 
figured that by the mid 1980s desktop 

computers would be commonplace." 
But they are, and some of the newest 
models even feature Trek-like voice 
recognition, albeit not as sophisticated 
as that employed by the Enterprise's 
computers. "Those things took us by 
surprise, and we're very conscious of 
that today on the current show. We 
want to try to stay ahead, obviously, of 
the rapid pace of development of con- 
tent po rary tec h n olog i es . " 

Technology can advance with sur- 
P r isirc swiftness, though, and at least 
one device created for Star Trek: The 
Next Generation has shown up about 
400 years early. "Rick Sternbach de- 
signed a device called the Personal 
Access Display Device (PADD), which 

is a little hand- he I d in format ion -access 
device," explains Mike Okuda. Star 
Treks senior art supervisor and techni- 
cal consultant. "About a year ago 
Apple Computer came oul with a 
gizmo called a Newton, which they cal 
a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). For 
all intents and purposes, it's the same 
device. That's a little weird. 

"I'm sure Starfleet's version has a 
few more of the bugs worked out," 
Okuda adds "Nevertheless, at the time 
we first started using those on the 
show, that seemed to be pretty com- 
fortably far into the future. But nope, 
you can now go to your friendly neigh- 
borhood computer store, and you can 
get one for a couple hundrei 

For the most pari, though, the newer 
Trek series have managed to keep a 
futuristic feel. Still, even some ot the 
newer technologies introduced on the 
shows don't seem 400 years off. Cur- 
rent virtual reality simulation centers 

B fie 


-:. i:i:w:k. But with work being done on 
3-D jser projection, the holodeck may 
not te that far off. And while they're not 
r-.s versatile or anthropomorphized as 
the Vo;ager's holo-doctor, computer- 
-.y-w.: .-.Xpert systems do help doctors 
v. :t i whent diagnoses today. 

Son atimes the show takes a con- 

■; I !";i- ■" approach so as 
not tc interfere with storytelling. Borma- 
nis rotes that starship computers 

c/ao'Oiranly lirnilaa ;iiii:o;;jl in- 
telligence or expert systems compared 
to what we think will be the case even 
40 or 50 years from now. 

"I can imagine the computers 15 or 
20 years from now will be more intelli- 
gent in some sense than the way we've 
represented the computers on the En- 
terprise. (With the exception 
of Data, if you think of him as 
a computer!" But if computers 
could solve all the crew's prob- 
lems, where would the adven- 

prima/ily. but also vAh the science con- 
cept in a show if there is a strong sci- 
ence element," he says. For one Deep 
Space Nino =j;-jisor!c- ;n s season. :ne 
writers approached him for details on 
comets. They understood the basics, 
but Bormanis filled them in on the de- 
tails and dynamics of comet behavior. 

"Once I get the script, I'll look over 
the passages that contain technical 
language and refine those." Bormanis 
adds. "Sometimes there'll be a place in 
the dialogue where I just see the word 
- FCk 1 lev, say We ■■mm.i ■■;.. aousl hf; 
TECH on the TECH,' or something to that 
effect. That's my cue to fill in the blank 
and fill in some appropriate dialogue." 

Bormanis is backed up in the TECH 
department by Okuda and Sternbach. 
"Since the second or third season of 
Next Generation, both Mike Okuda and 
I had technical consultant added to our 
credits," Sternbach says. The pair 
would be given early copies of scripts 
in order to facilitate art design, and 
they began offering technical notes to 

ticed that their notes were getting out 
and being pirated at conventions, so 
they decided that, if there was that kind 
of interest, they should go ahead and 
make all the information available in 
book form. Okuda also helped with two 
other books, The Star Trek Encyclope- 
dia and The Star Trek Chronology. 

If the script calls for a new technology, 
or goes into more detail about a com- 
ponent than the documentation sup- 
ports, it's time to get creative. If the 
item is a futuristic version of something 
that exists today, Bormanis will simply 
extrapolate from current terminology. "If 
we're dealing with a communicator, I 
feel fairly comfortable using a term like 
oscillator," he says. "You figure that a 
communications device in the future is 
probably going to have some kind of 
an oscillator. It may be made oul of 
some very exotic material, it may be 
very different from the kinds of oscilla- 
tors tt " 

devices today, t 

from? "1 

tnge c 

running the Enterprise, be- 
cause then humans aren't the 
smartest things around, and 

cise," Bormanis explains. 

Keepers of the TECH 
Star Trek technology has its origins in 
many places. Much of it is a legacy of 
the original 1960s series. New con- 
cepts are often introduced by the 
shows' producers during the inception 

developed by the shows' writers as the 
season progresses. But the triumvirate 
of Bormanis, Okuda. and Sternbach is 
responsible for making sure that Trek 
technology is believable, consistent, 
and plausible. 

Andre Bormanis has been science 
consultant for the Trek shows for the 
past couple of years. He came to the 
programs not only with experience in 
general science, computer science, 
and screenwriling, but also having 
dealt with the real space program— 
Bormanis spent two years in Washing- 
ton, DC, on a NASA fellowship 
studying policy issues for the space 
program at the Space Policy Institute. 
"What I do is read scripts through the 
various stages of development and 
help them out with technical language. 







the writers and producers as the 
scripls passed their desks. "Mike and I 
gave the writers some notes during the 
first season of Next Generation, and 
they began to trust the things that we 
had offered them, because we both 
had some grounding in the space sci- 
ences. It wasn't very long before we 
were 'TECHing' every script that came 
up," Sternbach remembers. 

Exactly what kind of TECH is used 
depends on whether an existing Trek 
device or technology satisfies the needs 
of the story. If it does, Okuda or Stern- 
bach will likely suggest something like 
a plasma conduit or EPS power tap for 
the TECH reference. Or the writers can 
check the show's TECH bible, the Star 
Trek; The Wexf Generation Technical 
Manual. Published by Pocket Books, 

chanical and scientific theories behind 
twenty-fourth-cenlury starship opera- 
tion in amazing detail. The book is based 
on "a big pile of memos we'd written 
over the years for the writing staff," 
Okuda says. Sternbach and Okuda no- 

there will probably 
nething that will 
sorvri that -unction. 

want something that's re- 
ally kind of different — 
something that performs a 

probably couldn't be per- 
formed by contemporary 
electronic components. So 
I've come up with things 
like an anodyne relay, dyne 
being a unit ol force in 
physics. I just take that and 
add something to it, some 
Latin term that has a specific rr.caning 
that could describe in a functional 

iiKi of a 

3 that 

that kind of a sys- 
tem," Bormanis says. "I tend to think 
that with an exotic, far-future sort of 
technology, it's probably better to in- 
vent some terms than it is to try to take 
something that's established in con- 
temporary electronics." 

Sometimes the terminology is pur- 
posefully vague. "One ol the clever so- 
lutions that Okuda and Sternbach 
came up with lor dealing with the com- 
puter terminology is, instead of using 
as a fundamental unit of memory the 
byte, they came up with the term 
Quad." Bormanis says. "One of the first 
things that I asked them when I got this 
job was how many bytes were in a 
quad. They said 'we don't define that, 
and we're never going to define that.' 
Because if we say, okay there are four 
bytes to a quad, then when we say the 
storage capacity or the main memory 
capacity of the Enterprise computer is 
20 gigaquad. people will say 'wait a 

minute, that's 80 gigabytes, and 80 gi- 
gabytes is nothing.' Ten years trom 
now that may be the case, so that's the 
way we stay ahead on that issue." 
Between Okuda. Sternbach. Borma- 

hof t€ 

lable, Star Trek has 

remained remarkably consistent in its 
portrayal of real and imagined tech- 
nologies. Occasionally an error or in- 
consistency does creep in, though. In 
"All Good Things," the final episode of 
Star Trek: The Next Generation, a 
scene set in the crew's future has Riker 
calling for a speed of warp 13. Yet both 
show dialogue and the Technical Man- 
ual indicate that the warp scale runs 
from to 10. with 10 being infinite ve- 
locity. So what happened? 

"That's a writer question — you should 
take it up with them," Sternbach says. 
"The writers and producers are very 
good listeners, and they have their rea- 
sons for doing what they're doing." 

Mike Okuda speculates on those 
reasons: "I think that was a deliberate 
effort to take something that all the Star 
Trek lans knew — that is. that Warp 10 is 
the absolute limit— and deliberately 
break it and not explain it, so that you 
know something has changed. You don't 
know what has changed: They might 
new super-ultra 

warp, or they might have n 
warp drive. You don't know what it was. 
but with one little word you know that 
something fundamental has changed. I 
think that was a very clever idea — with 
one word you go 'Oh! Yeah!*" 

Bormanis has the scoop. "I raised that 
question in a tech note. Basically, the 
idea there was that they recalibrated 
the warp scale. I don't think that ended 
up in the final draft teleplay, but the 
idea there was that if you've got ships 

that c 

of warp 9, then maybe it makes 
sense to recalibrate your speed scale 
so that warp 10 is no longer infinite ve- 
locity. Maybe warp 15 will be the ulti- 
mate speed limit, and warp 13 in that 
scale will be the equivalent of warp 
9.95 or something like that." 

Building the Fantasy 
For Star Trek science to be believable. 
it needs to look, as well as sound, con- 
sistent and convincing. And while he 
and Okuda do help with the scripts, 
Sternbach says, "our job responsibilities 
are primarily in the art field, with techni- 
cal consultant as the secondary role. 

"In terms of the art responsibilities 
that I have, if there are new props that 
have to be fabricated. I'll go through 
our prop- 

erty master, and I'll begin drawing 
whatever new equipment needs to be 

spaceships, including Voyager. That 
was a four- or five-month process all by 
itself, to come up with a smaller star- 
ship that had a distinctive look to it." 

And distinctive looks are part of 
what has made the Star Trek franchise 
stick out. "If you neglect style and 
color, you will be doomed to become 
Space Rangers," Sternbach says, re- 
ferring to a short-lived network series. 
"Star Trek, we believe, is as successful 
as it is partly because visually we stick 
to some very established styles. If 
you're channel-surfing and you come 
across Voyager or Deep Space Nine, 
you know it's Star Trek. 

"There are very specific shapes and 
colors that we work trom. If I'm going to 
come up with a new Romulan hand prop, 
I'll start with a certain set of design 
conventions, and ultimately it will turn 
out to be Romulan," Sternbach explains. 
"You will not be able to confuse a Ro- 
mulan phaser with a Klingon phaser." 

As with the original series, some of 
those designs are constrained by the 
realities of producing a weekly televi- 
sion show, "Budget limitations put 
some restraint on us in terms of what 
we can visualize from week to week," 
Bormanis says. "It would be nice to 
have full 3-D holographic displays 
every time we see the main viewscreen 
on the Voyager, but that's too expen- 

3. We're 

dof si 

with a 2-0 display, even though 30 
years from now 3-D displays may be 


Advances in twentieth-century tech- 
nology have helped make the twenty- 
fourth century look more convincing. 
Voyager has added computer-gener- 
ated effects to complement the model- 
and video-based effects brought for- 
ward from TNG and DS9. What's most 
impressive is that many ol these effects 
are created using off-the-shelf con- 
sumer computers and software. 

Grant Boucher, supervising anima- 
tor at Amblin Imaging, says that the 3- 
D effects his team creates for Voyager 
are done on a Commodore Amiga sys- 
tem equipped with a NewTek Video 
Toaster, as well as a DEC Alpha work- 
station. Animation is created on both 
systems using NewTek's Lightwave 3- 
D. "The Star Trek: Voyager effects team 
usually calls on us when a shot cannot 
be created using traditional means." 
Boucher says. 

"A good example of this is the 
episode called 'Phage' where the Voy- 
ager chases an alien ship into a hall of 
mirrors within an asteroid. The com- 
pleted shots we affordably provided 

been nearly as effective as true ray- 
traced reflections," Boucher says. 
"Even the phasers reflect realistically in 
the mirrors. Previously, the costs in- 
volved with such effects would have 
caused the delay or even cancellation 
of an otherwise first-rate script." 

And how does scientific accuracy 
figure into such effects? "We have an 
excellent research department at Uni- 
versal and the Star Trek: Voyager ef- 
fects team has all of Paramount's 
research facilities and decades of spe- 
cial elfects experience behind them," 
Boucher explains. "For the episode ti- 
tled 'Emanations,' for example, we had 
stacks of material on planetary ring 
systems and asteroids at our disposal. 
However, if pure science gets in the 
way of the story or the entertainment 
value of the shot, excitement wins." 

Sternbach says he still does much 
of his illustration work with a felt pen 
and marker, but somelimes computers 
do help him visualize objects. "I've 
done a lot of three-dimensional model- 
ing to see how certain shapes work out 
for various props and spacecraft," he 
says. "I can get a pretty good idea 
what something's going to look like as 
a solid object by whipping it out on the 
Mac in 3-D. We did some modeling of 
the inside of one of the engine na- 
celles, just to show Visual Effects what 
it would look like. They went and had a 
miniature built based on the color out- 
put we gave them." 

Beyond the Final Frontier 

The Star Trek creative team has to satisfy 
a very demanding audience. If a science 
glitch does make it through, they can 
count on it being discussed at conven- 

country, and in countless hie-nei news- 
groups such as 
But even die-hard Trekkers may not be 
the show's most demanding watchers. 

"We have respectable scientists as 
part of our core audience," says Stern- 
bach. Some members of this audience 
might even be tempted to start yelling 
helpful advice at the screen when the 
chief engineer tries to fix the warp 
drive. "We have a couple of friends 
who, during the first season, were 
working at Los Alamos labs on projects 
involving antimatter." 

But even this toughest crowd seems 
pleased with Star Trek's vision, Stern- 
bach says. "When The Next Generation 
was premiered at the Jet Propulsion 
Laboratory in Pasadena, the minute 
that Picard said 'Let's see what's out 
there.' the room went crazy/'DQ 


Usi both mis 

efih/papir being wMi-J in the 
viim ivri/rrg 

Set up ,i rvn-f!lng bin for aluminum 
cans and one for bottles. And when 
you're in die biilhroom brushing 



Ill 1.1 ill.' I.Llli-,1 

in. Remember, ifwc 

[OlLiv. "e II iive more lor tomorrow. 
Which would truly be a job •nrS done. 

U .'/: .\): >KH.\ttii;\!.m!S:i\'l) I').'". 

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I. Earth Share 






Finishing four days of work at Corning Incorporated in New 
York State— "helping to design better optical wave guides, 
ceramics, and catalytic converters"— statistician David 
Doehlert was heading home. Restless on the flight to Washington State, 
he browsed through a magazine and, beginning a piece about someone 
named Neil Sloane who works in high-dimensional mathematics, his 
boredom vanished, Doehlert knew instantly, "without the slightest hesi- 
tation, that in his work in geometry, Sloane was onto something hot," In 
fact, Sloane was the person Doehlert had been seeking for decades. 
Back in his Seattle office in the fall of 1990, the director of the Experi- 
ment Strategies Foundation dashed off a ietter to Sloane at Bell Labs in 
lurray Hill, New Jersey. In it Doehlert described his plan of incorporat- 
ing Sioane's explorations of "n-dimensional sphere packing," the mathe- 
matics of hyperspace, into a new program for design of experiments. 

Design of experiments (DOE) is a statistical virtual reality. In making 
anything new— from aircraft to new genetic material—DOEs are the 

crucibles of abstraction and i 

ness where the ideal elements of that 
product are combined, tested, and re- 
tested before engineers spend a dime 
on prototypes. Since the quality of the 
design of the experiment may spell 
success or failure of the product. DOE 
is the sine qua non of current manufac- 
turing in just about every industry. DOE 
is the cornerstone ot Total Quality Man- 
agement (TQM), the overarching cor- 
porate concept that, originating in 
Japan, has swept through American in- 
dustry — as an idea anyway. 

And until now, DOE was not quite 
up to snuff. 

Would Sloane. Doehlert wrote, be 
interested in collaborating on a pro- 

with it. A definition of statistics I'd heard 
was: If there are five dogs, three will be 
sleeping— or something like that. But 
the more the story about Gosset un- 
folded, the more I grew to appreciate the 
statistician's art and to see what an un- 
sung role design ot experiments plays 
in the making of things. There was 
something strangely exciting about this 
hidden part of industrial life, this mathe- 
matical prelude to the reality of facto- 
ries and machines, inventories and 
quarterly profits. And there was some- 
thing satisfying about this fortuitous 

tiplicity of points frc 
sions of men's lives ir 

Capable of handling tr 
equations at once. Gosset's statistical 
programs could be giving engineers 
and designers who use them the big 
edge in their corporate forever-wars. 
Says Bob Jordan, a project engineer at 
AlliedSignai Aerospace in Redmond, 
Washington: "Time is money in the 
aerospace industry. We've had a lot of 
layoffs and cutbacks. Those of us still 
left need to do more with less. Our 
competitors are attempting to do that, 
too. So if we can develop a process, 
come up with a product design we can 
manufacture efficiently, it we can come 
upon the parameters for doing that ef fi- 

ll, of v 



s by natur 

a deni 

theoretical math, roaming the ethereal 
planes of 24-D lattice structures and 
other purely abstract places. Indeed, 
few if any other mathematicians know 
their way around the higher dimensions 
as well as Sloane. Yet he caught on im- 

nowhere challenge for this earthly 
application, and called Doehlert on 
Christmas Eve 1990. Gosset, the 
world's first DOE program incorporat- 
ing higher-dimensional packing code 

•S Of T 

meeting of the rarefied world of Sloane 
and the nitty-gritty of laser welding runs. 

With Gosset, Doehlert said gleefully, 
"It's as if Neil and I found a way to drive 
the automobile 3,000 miles an hour 

65, a leading DOE expert, whom one 
engineer described as "a walking ge- 
nius," calls the result of this collabora- 
tion "the gift of a lifetime." 

I don't know whether Gosset will 
radically raise the quality of American 
manufactured goods, boost efficiency, 
erase the trade deficit, or make anyone 
happier, but the story of Gosset, like 
the program itself, pulls together a mul- 

cientiy, then that's the edge." 

Research scientist Kelly Robinson of 
Eastman Kodak in Rochester. New York, 
offers: "Companies that use design of 
experiments like Gosset wisely will be 
efficient, effective, successful. Ones that 
don't will be left behind and go out of 
business," Gosset is being applied in 
Sloane's home base at ATST, as well 
as at Genentech. Corning, Sandia Na- 
tional Labs, Polygram Records, Mobil, 
and many other organisations. 

And for the rest of us, Gosset sug- 
gests that we are all creatures of hy- 
perspace, and it may behoove us to 
think geometrically and be a bit more 
aware of multi dimensionality — the com- 
plex decision- making going c 

:i 3i! ;r 

quickly. It's the way life really is, and will 
become more so. It's a matter, you 
might say. of finding the Gosset within. 

Why did Doehlert want a better DOE 
mousetrap? The larger answer is TQM. 
Total Quality Management grew from a 
curious collusion: Japanese industry 
rising from the ashes of World War II 
and ah unknown American statistician, 
W. Edwards Deming. Long before his 
death at 94 in 1994, Deming was a leg- 
end in Japan and to the relatively few 
in the United States who knew how he'd 
recalibrated Japanese manufacturing. 
The irony in the Deming legend is that 
while the Japanese listened intently 
and acted upon his theories, Deming 
was a prophet scorned in his own land. 

Deming developed a strategy for 
improving quality in industry by means 
of continuous statistical analysis of all 
aspects of the manufacturing process — 
SPC, statistical process control— that 
aimed for constant improve- 
ment in the interaction of de- 

e-style TQM. But they lagged 
far behind, and some analysts say the 
United Stales still hasn't gotten the 
hang of SPC, TQM's basic tenet. 

With TQM in Japan came new gurus, 
senseis of statistical managei 
Best known is still probably Genichi 
Taguchi, who created malhematic 
programs to test quality. To find bet 
and more efficient ways to design a 
make things. Taguchi exhorted, co 
panies must seek the highest level 
quality from the outset. This optimum 
quality, rather than continuous improve- 
ment, was Taguchi's style. Zero de- 
fects. Better to dump all within-the 
range-of-standard-deviations goods 
than make and sell something less 
than optimum. 

Taguchi's first rule is that quality is a 
virtue of design. DOE, statistical analy- 
sis, was the first weapon in Taguchi's 
arsenal. By the Eighties Japanese in- 
dustry conducted thousands ot DDEs 
to make products more "robust" before 
they manufactured them. And some of 

ft, and working ei 

>uld h 

II that. There were no 
contenders against U.S. in- 
dustry then, and manufactur- 
ers couldn't pop their prod- 
ucts off the assembly line fast 
enough. Quality was not an 
operant concept. American in- 
dustry was the only game in town, i 
American industry told Deming to get 

So he took his idea to Japan. By 
mid Fifties, the chieftains of Japan 
industry had embraced "Demingi: 
as the model for achieving higher | 
cision by continuous 
throughout the corporation. In 1951, 
the Union of Japanese Scientists and 
Engineers created the Deming Prize, 
awarded to companies for the quality 
ot their shop and products. Today the 
Deming Prize is the most prestigious 
award in Japanese industry, and its 
winners include Toshiba. Matsushita 
Electric, Ricoh copiers. Komatsu. mak- 
ers of construction equipment, and so 
on. You get the picture. 

But American industry didn't have a 
clue until the 1970s, when they began 
lo wonder why people were buying 
Japanese. By then the Japanese had 
become TQM adepts, expanding and 
refining quality controls to almost mysti- 
cal levels. Finally the trauma of continu- 
ous loss to foreign competitors spurred 
American manufacturers to try some 



American industry began to see his 
point, but the implementation was scat- 
tered. The American Supplier Institute, 
the U.S. center for the Taguchi Method, 
estimated that in 1990 approximately 
5,000 Taguchi Method DOEs are com- 
pleted here every year. In Japan the 
method's usage exceeds 100,000. 

In 1984 Bob Jordan was working 
and going to college. "I had to take a 
class in statistical process control," he 
recalls. "I thought, this is going to be 
boring, worthless. But after two days all 
the lights were going on. Holy smokes! 
Why aren't we doing this? Most of the 
time in that class I was depressed. I'd 
see how we were throwing money 
down the tube, and when I'd try to talk 
to the managers about it. they didn't 
seem interested. My feeling was they 
should be fired for such a lousy atti- 
tude. They didn't give a rip. All of them 
are long gone now." 

Since the mid Eighties, most Ameri- 
can companies have tried some kind of 
DOE in designing products. Yet to de- 
velop an efficient experimental strategy 

that doesn't drain resources and also 
works to create prototypes is no mean 
feat. Taguchi's and other methods are 
complex, expensive, time-consuming, 
and statistically flawed. American com- 
panies wanted a DOE program that 
wasn't clunky. And they didn't have it. 
The situation was stagnating. "It wasn't 
until Neil Sloane and his Bell Labs col- 
league Ron Hardin developed Gosset," 
Doehlert claims, "that we can actually 
generate optimal designs quickly and 

The Cartoon Guide to Statistics says 

all the big questions are about relation- 
ships and tinkering with relationships. 
What will it do to A if we change B? is 
"something humans can't avoid ask- 
ing," says Doehlert. But the mathemati- 
cal insight concerning quantifiable 
began in the Twenties, with 
Fisher, a geneticist often 
called the founder of modern statistics. 
At Britain's Rotham stead Experimental 
Station he made exacting experiments 
on growing things: how much fertilizer, 
water, tillage, how close to- 
gether to grow plants (Re- 
alizing that even minor errors 
in sampling, measurement, 
and data recording could 
wreak havoc on analysis, he 
not only designed and an- 
alyzed animal breeding ex- 
periments, but also took 
care of the farm animals and 
cleaned their cages.) Fisher 
saw that changing the 
teveiol one factor changes 
the effect of another; that 
for better or worse things 
work with or against each other. It was 
the beginning of factorial analysis. 

Fisher created a geometric analytical 
space, cubical space, arrangements of 
elements along x, y, and z axes, Carte- 
sian coordinates. He and statisticians 
conceptualized these axes as a contin- 
uum of experimental elements — water, 
fertilizer, light, and so forth — compris- 
ing the corners of this hypothetical 
cube. They plugged as many as five 
factors simultaneously into their cube, 
looking for the convergence of the right 
combination of elements This optimal 
coming together came to be known in 
industrial design circles as "the sweet 
spot." The sweet spot is design nir- 
vana. In design engineers' drive to ex- 
tract maximum information from the 
least trials, factorial analysis became a 
geometric switching system into which 
many different design elements and 
levels of change could be fitted. 

What Fisher et al did was transform 

a sophisticated tool. Most people think 
in terms of cubes at least in even/day 



lile, and some people think in even 
higher-dimensional spaces. Doehlert likes 
to guide the initiate through cubical hy- 
perspace thinking with a multidi- 

ment," he says. "Baking a caka is the 
essence of much chemical experimen- 
tation, not to mention lhat of Betty 
Crocker and the rest of the food industry." 
We begin with a one-dimensional 
cake question; How much sugar is 
best? Draw a line with, say, 72 cup 
sugar at the left starting point and 5 
cups at the right endpoint. The line rep- 
resents all possible amounts ol sugar 
from 72 to 5 cups. Experimenting with 
sugar variations along lhat one line, 
we'll get to the best point, Doehlert as- 
sures us. Running all possible experi- 
ments is absurd; run a few and predict 
the rest. "Maybe 3 7e cups and alter 

Add flour, and the cake becomes a 


. So p 

3' flour lii 

points represent quantities of 
flour ranging from 1 to, say. 6 
cups. Every point on the square 
is a possible combination ol 
(lour and sugar. "We'll run a 
lew ol those and predict tt\e 
rest to find the best combina- 
tion of sugar and flour, to find 
the sweet spot — sweet in the 
sense of good for the sale of 

A 3-D cake question con- 

nation of factors works best. "Say we're 
at the point where it calls for 1 cup 
sugar, 3 cups flour, 3 teaspoons vanilla. 
60 stirs, at a temperature of 285 degrees 
in a glass dish, lor 50 minutes," says 
Doehlert. "If we move to another point 
in the space of possibilities in the cube, 
we have; 72 cup sugar, 2 V2 cups flour. 
2 teaspoons vanilla, 95 stirs at 320 de- 
grees temperature, steel pan We've 
just made a move in seven-space." 

Two decades after Fisher's work, 
statisticians noticed that when there 
are many factors, you can cut some 
corners. Instead of using all the corners 
of a cube, they could get away with only 
a fraction of them, say V2 or 3 /a. An- 
other British statistician, George Box, 
introduced the idea of overlaying topo- 
graphic "maps" on the cubes lo dis- 
cover the shape of the "complete hill." 
Box worked in the Fifties, and radar, 
rockets, and satellites inspired the 
I ooki ng -down -f rom -spac e perspective, 
r to the He conceived ol finding the sweet spot 
: by painfully working up to it east-west/ 



vanilla The square becomes 

a cube as you draw a line (the 

2 axis) representing vanilla possibilr- north-south, east-west/north-south, but 

ties; 7" to 4 teaspoons. Our cake be- by pointing radar from a satellite al so 

comes four-dimensional with an lected spots or iho terrain and reading 

abstract line representing a range of the altitude. "Box drew " 

r: Should I 
recipe call for 45 stirs or 300 or some- 
thing in between? The cake becomes 
five-dimensional when we add a tem- 
perature line: 250 to. say, 500 degrees 
Fahrenheit. When you factor in baking 
time your cake grows to six dimen- 

consider the baking container — glass, 
steel, aluminum, and so on. So a cake 
in seven-space contains a set ol factor- 
ial points (for sugar. Hour, vanilla, stirs. 
baking container, time, and tempera- 
ture) that is a specilication tor all possi- 
ble cakes within the constraints of this 
cake genre. Somewhere within that 
seven-dimensional, hypothetical, geo- 
metrical figure lies the sweet spot, the 
one best cake recipe. 

You plug the 7-D cube of cake mix 
possibilities into your algorithmic de- 
sign program and run the actual bak- 
ings experiments to see which combi- 

stioking up from the surface ol 
the cube to show where it peaks out at 
maximum quality," says Doehlert. 

In the Sixties and Seventies, designs 
ol experiments began to proliferate into 
calKogs. i:.'.;-jC''i:''C'i:s :vir;os ;ir:(i 

pages of "number matrices. Multifacto- 
rial experiments did indeed get better 
results, higher hilltops, but the number 
of experiments needed was getting out 
of hand. Industry balked at doing 40 or 
more to get better results 

More geometrically flexible. Gosset 
broke away from the limitations of the 
cube to function also in spherical or 
polygonal space. "Instead of sticking 
to the corners, or centers of faces or 

points around anywhere and let them 
find the right place to be in this space. 
It doesn't look right to some people," 
Doehlert laughs. "They think it's some 
kind ol cheating. They've been brought 

up working with corners of cubes and 
other simple things. We can now work 
with a definition of the volume ot the 
space of interest and various numbers 
ol factors or dimensions. With Gosset," 
he says, "we can produce minimal de- 
signs with the fewest possible number 
of experiments to explore space or we 
can go for more than minimal. We're 
free to move around points in optimal 
placemenl and choose numbers cf 
points. There are features we haven't 
used yet. We're 20, 50. 100 years 
ahead of the times. We can take off like 
never before. " It is due to the mathe- 
matics of sphere packing. 

In Neil Sloane's office at Bell Labs on 
a sunny spring day, Sloane and his col- 
league Ron Hardin, who among his many 
other talents, according to Sloane, is 
one ol the world's great programmers, 
are modeling their "Codemart" T-shirts 
with a "best 8192-poinl packing" 
sphere on the back. Both mathemati- 
cians, in their early 50s, are slim and 
muscular. Sloane bounces around on 
his toes as if his sinews were 
made of taut springs. As 
he moves, the best- pack- 
ing sphere (2 to the 13th 
power points) on his T-shirt 
looks like a fractionated 
kaleidoscope or the multi- 
laceted eye of an insect. 

Doehlert's letter had 
come to the right place. 
For decades Sloane and 
Hardin with Warren D. 
Smith had been building 
up tables of "nice arrange- 

spheres. placing N points on a sphere 

tween these points. Thus they dubbed 
themselves the Codemart Team, and 
the T-shirls carry the Codemart logo 
and some spectacular examples of 
their packings. 

Sphere packing: How closely can 
you put spheres together without any 
overlapping? The classic problem- 
looking for the number of points, the 
"kissing number," ol the pile of oranges 
at the market— is used to answer ques- 
tions about packing more and more in- 
formation into conduits such as optical 
fibers; the applications that control the 
flow of info on infohighways; CDs; 
modems with more baud power. 

Sphere packing explores the organ- 
ization of imaginary spheres into high- 
dimensional lattices. Crystals such as 
quartz are three-dimensional lattices. 
The pattern of tiles on your bathroom 
floor forms a two-dimensional lattice. 
Eleclronic signals can be points on a 
higher-dimensional lattice; information 
can be conveyed by points on a lattice. 



Mathematical lattices, periodic arrange- 
ments of poinls, regular spaced points, 
can theoretically extend forever in all 

Sphere packing in higher dimensions 
is the essence ol Gosset. An experi- 
ment design prepared on Gosset can 
be diagramed as a Codemarl-type 
arrangement of data points on a sphere, 
as a kaleidoscope design. 

"Our original response to Doehlert's 
letter." says Sloane, "was to extract an 
appropriate collection of packings from 
our tables and send them to him." It 
was a collection of 14 to 20 points in 
four dimensions; some 20 to 25 points 
in five dimensions. Doehlert started 
using them right away in his consulting 
work, applied to statistical DOEs ot 
things like the design of low-cost adhe- 
sives and glassware. 

"Then he subsequently admitted he 
was nol exactly interested in packing 
problems." Sloane continued, "but in 
linding optimal experiment designs." 
More faxes followed, asking about opti- 
mal placements of points in a cube, the 
simplest and most complex regions, and 
for various models. Over the next three 
years, they built up an ever more com- 
plicated program lhat would find optimal 
designs for a wide range of problems. 

Wrillen in C and running on a UNIX 

platform, the program is named after 
two Gossets: Thorold. one of the first to 
study polyhedra, regular solids in 
higher dimensions, and his contempo- 
rary, William Seally, one ot the tirst to 
use statistical methods. "Although from 
our geometric viewpoint their work is 
related," says Sloane, "we don't know if 
the paths ol Thorold and William Seally 
ever crossed." William Seally Gosset, 
an eminent statistician, worked for the 
Guinness brewery in Dublin. Under the 
pseudonym "Student." he surrepti- 
tiously published papers on the testing 
of a variety of cereals, quality ol milk, 
and so on, in some of the first experi- 
ment designs. 

Clearly Thorold. the precocious 
nineteenth-century discoverer of lattice 
sphere packings in six, seven, and eight 
dimensions, is Sloane's tavorite Gosset. 
"These are probably the densest ways 
you can pack spheres in those dimen- 
sions," he says. Gosset was called to the 
bar in 1895. Sloane recounts, "and got 
himselt a law degree the following year. 
But having no clients he amused him- 
self trying to figure out what regular fig- 
ures might exist in n dimensions. Re- 
cording the results, in 1897 he sent the 
essay to Major J. W. L. Glaisher, a fa- 
mous mathematician in British circles. 
Glaisher showed Gosset's work with E- 

8 lattices' to William Burnside. an even 
more famous mathematician, who said 
he couldn't get past the first half of the 
proof. Gosset's sort of geometrical intu- 
ition didn't appeal to him, Burnside ad- 
mitted, and his ideas seemed 'fanciful.' 
Gosset therefore published only the 
barest outline of his work, which was 
ignored for many years. This probably 
discouraged Gosset, for he never pub- 
lished anything else on the subject, 
dying in 1962. There was just the one 
very short paper in the 1900 volume of 
the Messenger of Mathematics. But," 
Sloane concluded, "if you had wanted 
an experiment design with about 240 
tests in seven or eight dimensions and 
had asked Gosset about setting it up, 
he would have known how. But of 
course nobody did because they didn't 
think geometrically about statistical 
problems in those days." 

Sloane and Hardin's lirst Gosset ex- 
periment design was for an optimal mix 
of meat, bread, and cardboard for a 
simulated McDonald's meatloaf. "Price 
is a factor for the company." says 
Hardin with a straight face. "And so is 
customer satisfaction." 

"Remember the famous Air Force 
story," Sloane adds, "where they were 
trying to find the optimal diet for pilots. 
So they plugged in all the variables 


fojncieM ffinn shuffles uith the 
intricacies of the 
ecrfy hoofrter&nc. 

fhe oricift of the clip-on tie 


and it came out with carrots— a 100 
percent carrot diet!" 

One of the ingredients of the Gosset 
program is a "slightly secret" optimiza- 
tion algorithm that somehow Sloane arid 
Hardin never get around to talking about. 

But they do want to demonstrate its 
flexibility, so Sloane and Hardin set up 
a whimsical test run, a "friendly little 
fake experiment," on the office termi- 
nal. They postulate a product, Omni-1, 
that contains not only continuous vari- 
ables but also a discrete facto;: to sac- 
rifice or not to sacrifice a goat. 

(Where Gosset is much better than 
other design programs, says Kodak's 
Kelly Robinson, is when a design also 
involves discrete factors: "It's either 
there or not'there. For example to put a 
flash on a camera or not. It doesn't 

flash.") Experiments with both continu- 

much more complex math. 

Sloane sets up the constraints, the 
endpoints in either direction to which 
each factor can conceivably go. Sup- 
pose Omni-1 seeks an optimum 
amount of temperature, water, flow, and 
sodium. These are continuous vari- 
ables. But Omni-1's designers also 
need to know what to do about that 
goat: a discrete variable. "So we spec- 

ify a model to include water plus flow 
plus temperature plus sodium plus 
goat." This model which is to be used 
to inlerpolate between data points has 
So 20 runs are needed in the 

the best Omni-1 product.'' 

Ron Hardin adds: "You can put ad- 
ditional constraints into the program, say, 
that temperature plus goat h 

mir::"v:il d 
In this 

tempts *i 

is than 110 degrees. Can't I 

■nig 'i 

it made eight at 

It many," Sloane 

ates tne design. "Last night I ran 2,000 
attempts tor an integrated circuit 
sign ior my colleagues down the 
just to see if I could. The six -hundredth 
set a new record but it was not appre- 
ciably better than the fourth, maybe 
just a half a percentage point better." 

in five minutes the design is fin- 
ished. "One hundred thou; 

d that the b 



■sign is often 

S loo the first 

'Under the best possi- 
ble combination it says," Sloane reads 
off the screen, "(1) you don't sacrifice 
the goat: (3) three grams sodium: (3) 
flow is -0.13: (4) five grams water; and 
(5] temperature is 156 degrees. So you 
print this out, give it to the factory oper- 
ator and say, 'Run these things.' Hence 


h for the problem ol funding!" 

temperature plus goat— that's r >-ally r isk 

How does the program choose a 
design? Starting from some random 
design settings it optimizes them (using 
the not quite secret algorithm). Then it 

numbers of times; then the program 
picks the best. "What's remarkable, " 
Sloane says, "is that the program auto- 
matically tells itself to make repeated 
measurements at some points. We 
didn't program it to do this." 

What the program is really doing, he 
adds, boils down to minimizing the 
trace ol the points' coefficients— which 
equals moments ol space— on the geo- 
metrical (igure. This minimization, then, 
approaches the region of the optimal 
design. Doehlert had in effect chal- 
lenged Sloane in t990: Tell me how I 
can choose the best points among un- 
countable possibilities? Gosset now 
does that on cubes, spheres, finite 
sets— any polynomial, any model. 

Using eight high-speed Silicon 
Graphics parallel processors, Sloane 
' and Hardin also began building up 
their library of previously existing de- 
signs. "This is stuff we're running on 
background night and day looking for 
the best designs that can be applied to 
anything. When we find one we store it. 
We can tell the library to search for a 
design We're making these tables so 
people can use them without having to 
run the programs. For example," 
Sioane says, "if you want 120 points in 

that is, 1,500-dimensional space— 
we've worked in 1,500 space. But this 
software allows it. Nobody has done 
that before." 

Sloane describes one spherical ex- 
periment "like an egg with its top cut off 
and we're looking up at its inside." 
"Having Neil figure out how to do what 
was needed using his math, and Ron's 
programming, is the perfect outcome 
of my work." exclaims the ebullient 
Doehlert. "Consider that before Gosset, 
a single experiment design preparation 
could commonly cost $1,500. Gosset 
can generate an optimal design on the 
spot for $300 to $800. And very fast. 
As a statistician. I used to work up to a 
couple of weeks trying to figure out a 
good design. And it would be nowhere 
near as good as Gosset. Now I have it 
in 24 hours or less, and it's better than 
we could have possibly done the old 
way. It's an astonishing leap!" 

Doehlert, who has taught design ol 
experiments concepts to engineers 

and scientists for decades, and still 
does, marvels at his rapport with 
Sloane. "Some people don't catch on 
no matter how I explain it," he says. 
"Others are quick and catch on well, 
but Sloane was the quickest, I charac- 
terize time with Neil as being like heat 
lightning in a summer thunderstorm, 
where the whole sky lights up from the 
lightning and goes out fast to the cor- 
ners. An idea was like the beginning of 
a lightning strike, then the sheet of light 
where all the clouds are lit up across 
the sky. In moments we outlined how to 
help every single researcher in the 
world with every single project. It is the 
ultimate thrill to use the mind to 
huge amounts of territory with exceed- 
ing rapidity." 

Back in the company lab. project 
gineer Bob Jordan at AlliedSignal used 
Gosset lor determining the swee' 
tor the operation of a thermal s 
factoring in variables as arcane 
nonengineer as a foreign tongue 
abes soeciiic to metallurgical, mechan- 
ical, and manufacturing considerations . 
Jordan's group also designs accelerom- 
eters for aircraft and flight-deck 
recorders, the so-called "black boxes" 
so crucial in determining caus 
plane crashes. In the past, Jordan 
says, he didn't much use heavy-duty 

design of experiments because they 
were difficult and cost-prohibitive, in- 
stead attempting to narrow down the 
list of factors. "That was always risky," 
he explains, "because you didn't know 
if you'd narrowed down that factor 
which in real life turned out to be very 
important." Today, the AlliedSignal 
plant in Redmond, he adds, "has a 
good lead on the local industry and 
aerospace in general. We're doing more 
statistical process control than the rest 
as reflected by our low scrap costs 
among other things. We're highly com- 
mitted to the total quality mandate." 

At Eastman Kodak, Kelly Robinson 
has used DOEs in film-related manu- 
facturing, "I've worked in an electrosta- 
tic group. Electrostatic charges 
collecting on sheets of paper or film 
can cause jamming or other problems. 
We've tried to develop processes that 
aren't sensitive to that charge." 

Do programs such as Gosset affect 
a company's TQ? "They have a huge 
effect," Robinson answers. "It gets to 
the heart of a revolution occurring at 
Kodak. We recently hired a new CEO, 
George Fisher. He's encouraged us 
along the path of reduced cycle limes, 
getting more things done and iasler. 
Gosset affects cycle time, efficiency. 
But," he warns, "Gosset will help find 

the sweet spot, but it won't help you 
understand what happened. I can run 
a large designed experiment, bring all 
the data back to my desk, throw up my 
hands and say. 'Jeez, what in the world 
happened?' Gosset won't help explain 
what the molecules are doing. That's 
not what it's for. You still need to under- 
stand the chemistry and physics of 
what you're doing. Still need creativity 
and insight into the process." 

But people will increasingly need lo 
■J link this way, he continues. "Probably 
more than they realize. And there's little 
lorrnai training in it. People get hung up 
trying lo visualize what higher-dimen- 
sional space looks like. It's easy to lai-. 
about a 1-D point, or a line on a high- 
way between here and New York. We 
were born and grew up in three-dimen- 
sional space. I've never visited iour-di- 

il looks like. But in terms of visualizing 
how a manufacturing process behaves 
when I change seven things at once, 
that I can think about, have a mental 
image of it. When I have seven direc- 
: or s o- freedom. I'm in seven-space." 

Meanwhile, back at Bell Labs, 
Sloane and Hardin are coming out with 
another Codemart T-shirl with the same 
sphere packing but a new motto: "You 

it. Wees 



Lb ii ii aril Hinua 

SliBBEB F I [till 

The Cold Collection Volume II 

back in time. This special ten-i 
s a sampling of the multitude ol 

is of our experts. 



FREE Leonard Nlmoy Sclsncs- F i- en Inr 


-517-4738 | 


n Residents S7.50) 

Address 1 

r-ny State Zio 

Card Ace 



SI t 

Some months back, Omni published a survey, "Visions ot 
the Afterdealh," polling readers about their own beliefs re- 
ding the subject. The survey was part of a larger project 
conducted for the Institute for the Study of the Afterdeath 
(ISA) by director Sukie Miller, Ph.D., who has crisscrossed 
the globe in order to study different cultures and their beliefs 
about what happens after the body dies. The Omni survey is 
an extension of Miller's work and will be used as a point of 
comparison for American attitudes on the subject. Our 
readers' responses will be compared, for instance, with the 
beliefs of the Sikhs from India, the Guarani from Brazil, and 
the Yoruba from Nigeria. 

The results are in: Close to 6.000 questionnaires were re- 
turned from all 50 states and several foreign countries, 
making it one of the most successful surveys in Omni history. 
Some questionnaires were copied and passed around at 
church groups or in classrooms. Seventeen percent of our 
readers attached poetry, artwork, quotations; 43 percent 
wrote additional comments on their questionnaires. 

So, who were the Omni readers who participated in the 
survey? Not surprisingly, the group was quite diverse: men, 
43.5 percent; women, 56.5 percent: median income, $25,000 
to $45,000; median education, four years of college; 

including computer graphic 
artists, homemakers, lawyers, 
geologists, prisoners, Stu- 

that the afterlife is a place of 
light, joy. and bliss. Geog- 
raphy, income level, reli- 

likely to believe that 
afterdeath is nc: ol ssii.,1 
thai there if 
cation between Ihe alte 

death traveler and the stil 
living. Women are more like 
to believe that the afterdeal 

are more likely lo be pe 
suaded ot the existence i 
life alter death through tec! 

also more likely to feel th; 
they will be emotionall 
alone in the afterdeath. 
The Omni readers' opir 

very different from those ol 
tribal peoples. For instance, 
most other groups in Miller's 
research believe that there 

the afterlife, whereas 64 
percent of the Omni readers 
do not anticipate any des- 
pair in the afterlife. Similarly, 
other groups tend to put a 
great deal of importance on 
the physical state of the 
body, such as age or psych- 
ological condition, at the 
time of death as a factor in 
the afterdeath experience. 
However, 77 percent of the 
Omni readers disagreed 

responding to the reincar- 
nation belief, prominent in 
other cultures, that one's 

64 OMNI 

family and country are pre- 
determined before rebirth, 
69 percent of the Omni 
survey responses show lhat 
our readers do not believe 
these factors contribute to a 

II is clear from the sta- 
tistics that the Omni sample 
was pretty sanguine about 

tend to feel that life after 

death will be a feast for the 

dition. A 33-year-old news- 
New Hampshire, in offering 

marizes the beliefs of Ihe 
majority of those surveyed. 

one of spiritual progression 
toward a redeeming goal . . . 
reaching ultimate union with 

provides a context for under- 
standing the survey results 

in relation to other countries, 

context of historical and 
conlemporary American 
thought. We asked a group 
of experts, representing vari- 
ous faiths and disciplines, to 
help. While cultural historians 
found that our survey exem- 

equivocality — of the Ameri- 
can conscience, theologians 
pointed out the constantly 
evolving nature of the 
American religious experi- 

cussed the striking dissim- 
ilarities between the Omni 
reader's outlook and that of 
pre industrial cultures. 

Intimations on what will 
happen in the afterlife are 
among the most human and 
intimate sentiments, plumbing 
the depths of the psyche, 
confronting the profoundest 
of fears and challenging the 
strongest of faiths. So, too, 
examining the collective con- 
I grapples 
- is of- 

il ques 

j| of 

a people. What do the Omni sample's 
opinions say about the state of the na- 
tion? How has our aflerdeath r--dr: 
evolved from the American experi- 
ence? Is it a refutation or a reaffirmation 
of Judeo-Christian teaching? How oors 
our optimistic view square wilt- o:nor 
traditions? Unlike other soclii us. the 
United States does not have a mcno- 
lithic orthodoxy defined anc refined 
through many centuries. The modem 
American ideal is informed by riur 
dreds of different religious tran hons. as 
well as by scientific explorations ord 
New Age mysticism. 

Much to the chagrin of the religious 
right and such pundits as Jerry Falv.cii 
or Pat Robertson, the United States has 

much faith in science as it has in reB- 
gion. As Sukie Miller explains Pboph 
in America seem to have lost a Strong 
connection to their religiojs 'cuts 
Some grow up in households where 
there is no emphasis placed on gong 
to church; others abandon whatever 
church they did grow up with 
II is increasingly difficult foi 
these people to relate to their 
dying grandmother who says 
she is going home to Jesus.'' 

The American experience 
represents an unusual depar- 
ture from cultures where ideas 
about death and the afterlife 
are more easily woven into the 
cyclical patterns of life. "In the 
United States, death is not a 
part of everyday life." says 
Miller, "it's a religious question 
we address on Sunday, codi- 
fied and organized by the church." Miller 
goes on to explain that in other cultures 
she has studied, "death is not hidden 
behind closed doors, it's a part of life; 
the atmosphere is crowded with spirits." 

It is, in fact, only recently that Ameri- 
cans seem to express a renewed inter- 
est in questions concerning Ihe death 
and the afterlife experience. For Miller, 
this interest is a direct manifestation of 
the cultural conditions of late-modern 
life. "We now have a young genera- 
tion," she explains, "dying of a plague 
that moves these questions to the fore- 
ground. AIDS, cancer— these are not 
immediate deaths; they're drawn-out ill- 
ness. People have time to think, to 
question, to go raging into death." If is 
only natural, then, that there is a new 
inlerest in what happens after death. 

Throughout history, as a matter of 
fact, there have been major upticks of 
interest in the afferlife during times of 
fear about the stability of this life. 
Lawrence S. Cunningham, chair of the 
Department of Theology at the Univer- 
sity of Notre Dame draws the obvious 

comparison of the AIDS crisis to the 
fourleenth-century plagues. "During 
the 'ate Middle Ages," he says, "around 
the lourteenth century there was a 
tremendous boom in religious discus- 
soi dI death and the afterlife. Very 

plague when millions died in their prime." 
Cu.-ningham also notes that the 
Changes in American attitudes about the 
afie' He have changed radically even in 
!'is own lifetime. "When I was a kid, the 
oc \.r'wal liturgy was preoccupied with 
s« dewth, and punishment. Part of the 
lunerai service was the Dies Irae—a 

■■:■.:.••: -Hi hymn about the wrath of God 
on Judgment Day Today, even the last 
' tcs have become the anointing of the 
sic* there is emphasis on the hope of 
Ihe f>si.rrectioa Funerals used to be all 

n black; now the pall of the coffin and 

thetlo shift which marks a cultural shift." 

I -ie now and why of such shirts is a 

sp'ia of cause and elfect. Does the 

church's newfound focus on hope en- 



lure of a person does not change be- 
cause of death," the respondent writes. 
"Death merely frees the soul from Ihe 
narrow limits of our reality." Personal re- 
sponsibility and the hope of salvation 
are issues that are applicable for life 
and the afterlife as well. As Rabbi 
Yonassan Gershom, author o( Beyond 
Ashes: Cases ol Reincarnation from 
the Holocaust explains, "Jewish tradi- 
tion teaches that each individual life is 
valuable and important in itself. There- 
fore, one must retain one's identity after 
death. Free will continues through eter- 
nity, as the soul continues to grow." 

Eastern religions, on the other hand, 
take a different tack. "The afterlife trav- 
eler seeks to relinquish the will, to be- 
come unattached from the idea of Ihe 
individual," says Kenneth Kramer, pro- 
fessor of comparative religious studies 
at San Jose State University in Califor- 
nia "Thats what's keeping you from being 
a whole person, f'om 'user *i?" higher 
The goal of the journey 
at everything that keeps us 
separate from everything 
else." Kramer goes on to 
explain thai in Tibetan so- 
ciety, for Instance, there is 

after i 
opportunity t 

s the 
it off 

are pulled by their will— a 
sorl of karmic residue of 
earthly life — away from this 
goal and are therefore 

courage the citizenry to feel belter about 

the Hie after death? Or has the increas- 
ing optimism of the flock necessitated 
evolution in the clergy's approach? 

No d 

s that tt 

. reflection ol a little bit of both. 
One thing, however, is certain. Ameri- 
cans are no longer content to be spoon- 
fed some scriptuia exegesis of para- 
dise. Hardline Judeo-Christian ortho- 
doxy has been infiltrated by many 
extraneous influences, including testi- 
mony from people who've had near- 
death experiences (NDEs)— many ol 
whom describe a vision that buars - 
ing similarities to the promises of celes- 
tial bliss advocated by the church. 

One of the central issues in dis- 
cussing afterlife experiences is the ex- 
tent to which the deceased changes 
(or remains the same) during the after- 
death journey. A letter submitted by a 
survey respondent, a 22-year-old col- 
lege student from Torrance, California, 
expresses the interest in maintaining a 
sense of the integrity of the individual 
common to Western religions. "The na- 

cornerstone of the Ameri- 
can ethos, so it is not surprising that 
Americans find it difficult to picture an 
afterlife bereft of free will. "In the West, 
we place a premium on our individual- 
ity, and the will is associated with iden- 
tity and consciousness," says Kramer, 
author of Death Dreams and The Sa- 
cred Art ol Dying. 

In fact. Western religion suggests 
that paradise is a realm of heightened 
"The traveler does not 

iiich, i 

n the 

form." writes a 46-year-old vice presi- 
dent of a design and marketing firm in 
Thousand Oaks, California, "rather he 

and 'knows' on a higher plane." People 
who've had NDEs concur. According to 
Kenneth Ring, professor of psychology 
at the University of Connecticut, and 
author of The Omega Project, near- 
death survivors report that their senses 
are more acute. "Colors are living and 
vivid beyond description. Beautiful, 
transcendental music is sometimes 
heard. The blind— even those blind 
from birth — report seeing," says Ring. 

This exultation of the senses is a 
phenomenon common to both Eastern 
and Western traditions. Lawrence E. 
Sullivan, director ol Harvard Univer- 
sity's Center tor Study of World Reli- 
gions and author of Icanchu's Drum, 
points out that in Western thought, 
"paradise is portrayed as a ceaseless 
least and festival. " Heaven is a place in 
which the soul will live before trie face 
of God bathed in perfect love and 
peace People who have had NDEs 
confirm this. "They describe their con- 
dition as extremely blissful, happiness 
beyond happiness," says Ring. "As 
one survivor said. 'If you take the thou- 
sand best things that ever happened to 
you, and multiply that times a million, 
you get close to Ihis feeling.'" 

The unquenchable confidence in a 
joyous afterlife is embedded deep in 
our hislory and psyche. According to 
Sukie Miller, "Americans believe it's our 
birthright to be happy. We guaranteed 
it in the Declaration of Independence. 
We feel we're entitled lo it. and we'll 
sue somebody il we don't get it." An- 
drew Greeley, professor of sociology at 
the University of Chicago and a 
renowned author, supports the idea 
that Americans are increasingly opti 
mistic about the afterlife. "Belief ' 
," he says b 


heaven has not. People have a convic- 
tion that God wouldn't do that to them." 

The optimism which characterizes 
recent trends in the Judeo-Christian 
tradition in America stands in marked 
contrast to other cultures where death 
begins a long and often arduous and 
painful journey. Miller explains that 
among the Yoruba Hunter Guild in 
Nigeria, there is an understanding thai 
just as life comes with both pleasure 
and pain, so, loo, death must also have 
its share ol pain. "They worship a god 
who supervises the success of the 
hunt," Miller explains. "When they die, 
their journey mirrors the trials and dan- 
gers they faced on the hunt — including 
feelings of pain, terror, and despair." 

Lawrence Sullivan agrees. "By most 
reckonings, the journey is arduous." he 
says. "The dead person must endure a 
tesl and make il through. In the Zoroas- 
trian religion, which arose out of Iran, 
the dead face the prospect of com- 
plete, agonizing annihilation. In order to 
reach paradise, the soul must cross the 
Chin Vat, a bridge of fire, without being 
consumed or falling into the abyss." 
Sullivan also tells of the tradition in the 
highlands of New Guinea where the 
dead lollow a feathered mammal to a 
dark and dour land, and of the Ice- 
landic sagas which describe a world 

alter death that's a frozen wasteland. 

Though not without exceptions, there 
is a general consensus in world reli- 
gions lhat the nature of the afterlife ex- 
perience can be mitigated by one's 
earthly behavior. According to Michael 
Grosso. professor of philosophy at Jer- 
sey City State College, and author of 
The Millennium Myth, "Somehow what 
we experience in the afterlife will be a 
result of how we've lived our lives. In 
the East, it's karma. In the West, it's the 
moral consequences of our deeds. Ei- 
ther way makes it imperative to live a 
good lile." The same holds true in pre- 

industrial societies according to Sulli 

van. "The Warao Indians in Venezuela 
believe there are many paths leading 
out of their village to the end of the 
world." he says. "After death, people 
head out on a particular path deter- 
mined by the choices they made in life. 
They make their way lo a place in the 
heavenly realms consonant with whal 
they did during their lifetime." 

Once again, Ihis pattern is also a 
pattern in NDEs. One of our respon- 
dents, a 59-year-old orchid grower 
from Hanapepe, Hawaii who had an 
NDE at age 14. offers this insight into 
the relationship between life experi- 
ences and Iheir afterlife counterparts. 
"Each person has his own experience 
arising from one's level of enlighten- 
ment or lack of it. In pitiful cases, it can 
be a very sad and confused state of 
existence." Kenneth Ring offers an 
even more desolate picture. "You expe- 
rience all the effects of your bad deeds 
on others," he says, "as il you felt them 
yourself. The Golden Rule isn't just a 
precept for moral conduct," he contin- 
ues, "it's the way it works— what you do 
unto others, you really do do unto your- 
self." The proceedings take the form of 
a kind of spiriutil SMlf-litigalion. Accord- 
ing to Ring, it is not so much a question 
of having someone sit in judgment on 
one's soul, but rather the soul must 
judge itself. The process seems to be a 
cathartic one. "You're not condemned, 
and you don't come away with a sense 
ol guilt or shame. The self-judgment is 
experienced in the presence of over- 
whelming acceptance and love." 

It would seem, then, that most of us 
have a happy ending awaiting us. At 
any rale, mos! ol us would like to Ihink 

evolution of creeds through the cen- 
luries. or is it a reflection of the shallow- 
ness of our thinking? Do we have a 
rosy view of the afterlife because of our 
inability to come lo lerms with tough 
choices, bad news, complicated con- 
cepts? Just as Americans are strongly 
attached to notions of individual worth 
and afterlife opportunity, we also have 

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Once again, Sukie Miller offers a 
constructVc way tc situate Americans 
within the contexl ol a ra-onal charac- 
ter whic 1 : ij 'elk'iriec by :n.- <-.'ir.i:les 

loward the a'te'Me 'We are rol good 
with the unknowable r this oounlry ' 

iijhsi r. irrl 

e iriereslec n nu'.triji evice'-te. 
In the Un.too Stairs, we thin* if t's ret 
matter. ifB not roa.,' Michael Grosso 
sees the issue in a slightly different 
way. "The average person has proba- 
bly not thought about whal it means to 
leave the bodily apparatus and the fa- 
miliar world of earthly exislence." he 
says. "It's difficult to have faith, to imag- 
ine how the soul survives. People think, 
'How can I be me without my body?' 
They have lo relinquish the idea ol the 
physical body and accept Ihe idea of 
an astral, menial, spirilual body." 

Another issue of concern in trying to 
envision the reality of an afterlife is that 
ol communication, specifically the 
ways in which the malarial world of Ihe 
living communicates with the spirit 
world. There are numerous ways in 
which such communication may take 
place, but most, if not all, lack the means 
of presenting their cases in terms of 

35-year-old English teacher from Des 

Moines, Washington, demonstrates (he 
problem of trying lo research this issue 
scientifically. "If we are oper to it." ihe 
survey respondent writes ' ■■*. 
municate with spirits of people who 

spirits of dead relatives tak io me in 
dreams and while I was awasc Thoy 
have no physical body. I seise it-cm 
Miller points out the same problem 'In 
Mexico on the Day of the Dead, people 

anceslral communication is imperative. 
"In these systems, you have to take 
care of your dead grandparents, feed 
them, oiler them gifts. If you don't, they 
get very nasty and all hell breaks 
JOie " Miller conlrasts this behavior 
w ti- Tie prevailing reality of contempo- 
rary American sociely. "Here, we don't 
ever- lake care ol our living old people, 
n . : ' less honor our ancestors." 

A~iericans seem to have mixed 
ee " ; js about communicating with the 
ceac According to Andrew Greeley 
aboul 40 percent have had a 

i. The 

essence of the sweets. While we might 
call Ihis idea poetic and talk about 
metaphor, for those lighting the can- 
dles in Mexico, the experiences are 
real; the children really did return, and 
so communicated with the living." 

Kenneth Kramer notes lhat keeping 
in touch with one's deceased ances- 
tors is a very imporlant aspect of the 
Chinese cultural tradition. "In China," 
he explains, "there is a veneration ol 
ancestors. There are elaborate cere- 
are consulted when making major de- 
cisions." Miller also points to African 
tribespeople who similarly believe that 

'igj'e goes up to 60 percent among 
w dows and widowers. 

When it comes lo contact, the reli- 
gious community sends mixed signals. 
"Communicating with the dead is too 
close to necromancy, traditionally con- 
sidered one of Ihe black arls by the 
church," explains Cunningham. "Don't 
try lo call them back, no seances." 
agrees Gershom, although he adds 
that communication through dreams or 
vision is all right. The rule seems to be; 
Don't call Ihem, let them call you. 

And Ihey do. Greeley recalls, "A man 
once told me the story ol driving home 
Irom work one evening. His father was 
sitling in the front seat next lo him, giv- 
ing him advice about how to run the 


Jurassic Park could be open for business 

in 20 years. So says the man who first proposed cloning 

dinosaurs from ancient insects in amber. 

I needed at it 

: 1 5 years 


Tagc, whe 
convey tr 
how it might be possible to de- 
rive from a fly in amber a living, breathing di- 
nosaur hatchling. And yet, as I write, I have 
just heard Jay Leno ask, "How in the world 
did we get all these dinosaurs in Congress?" 
"I get it," he says, after a pause. "Some 
scientist found a piece of amber with a 
mosquito in it . . ." and the audience bursts 
into immediate laughter. 

They got it, every one of them. Thanks lo 
Michael Crichton and Steven Spielberg. 
every eight-year-old child with a love of di- 
nosaurs (which is to say, every eight-year-old 
child) now knows the dinosaur-cloning recipe 
inside and out, 

I would never have believed this possible, 
back when lengthy explanations left col- 
leagues at Victoria University, Berkeley, and 
the Smithsonian exhausted and confused by 
what was lo even the most open-minded of 
them "a totally bizarre thought," if nol "down- 
right crazy." Perhaps my explanations were 
pari of the problem; brevity was never one of 
my virtues. Indeed, alier watching me go on 
about amber, carbonaceous meteorites, and 
resurrecting the dinosaurs (sometimes in the 
same sentence), science 'icon writer and 
then-Omro editor Ben Bova agreed with one 


of my Jesuit teachers that "going to 
Charlie and asking a question can 
be like going to a fire hydrant for a 

And so it turned out that, by 1981, 

I had managed to utterly confound a 
great many of my colleagues. 

n had 

begun to send me electron micrographs showing strands of 
■»v : -i:'i: nppcarsci :o he oucicit mitochondrial DNA preserved 
in an amberized insect (hints of a dinosaur starter kit, if you 
will). But members of that same Berkeley team originally 
held such jaundiced opinions of the feasibility of dinosaur 
cloning that, for more than two years, they blocked the 
recipe's publication in Smithsonian. They had themselves 
produced micrographs of what may yet prove to be one of 
the biological discoveries of the cenlury— evidence that 
whole libraries of ancient DNA may lie dormant within the 
earth— but they refused to see it 

In frustration, I eventually brought my pape 
waru-lookmq people at Omni, who published 
uary 1985 issue. Unlike a lot of my other works, the "Dino- 
saur Capsule" article seemed to produce almost i 
sponse at all. I guess it was just the sort of thing you 
discuss in polite scientific circles in those days. Looking 
back, I wonder if anyone except Michael Crichton ever read 
it. But does it matter? He was enough. 

With Crichton's novel, Jurassic Park, and Spielberg's 
su>. : ei.| , .Ji,. , i: ph-inonc-naily success 1 !.,! MI't adaptatii 
ence fiction once again made complex scientific ic 
spectable. What Jules Verne did for submarine: 
Robert Heinlein and Arthur C. Clarke did for translunar flight, 
Crichton and Spielberg did for the emerging scii 
leogenetios. All that remains now is for the realities of scien- 
tific achievement to once again catch up with the fiction. 

In my article of 10 years ago, I predicted via: ihe lechnoi- 
ogy necessary to make the cloning of dinosaurs 
thinkable was about 30 years away. Looking at the advances 
in genetic and computer technology that have taken place 

:i iclon: lied :■ 

Following the termite discovery, 
ileontologist Gerard Case— who 
ok me to the New Jersey amber 
ids in 1978 and whose discovery 

95-million-year-old biting flies at 
iout the same time I began finding 
lact muscle fibers in amberized 
ses actually triggered the Jurassic 
agist David Grimaldi. whose team 
DNA, to a new amber deposit in 
New Jersey. The discovery greatly expanded the world's 
supply of Cretaceous period idling pests, which had both 
motive one opportunity 'or Jilting dinosaurs. During the Sum- 
mer of 1993, Case and Grimaldi mined out a Cretaceous 
vein that produced 60 pounds ot amber containing scores of 
biting flies and other insects. 

Excavated from a tomb 24,000 times older than any 
pharaoh's, the little handful of flesh-feeding creatines if. as 
priceless as the golden death mask of Tutankhamen. We 
would all love to get into any saurian cells clinging to their 
mandibles, but paleontologists are by nature a rather patient 
lot, so the organic gem stones must ideally remain under re- 
frigeration (to stop the amber itsell from evaporating ils oils 
and cracking now that it has been exposed to air), waiting 
for technology to catch up with fhe dream. PCR may be ad- 
vanced technology by today's standards, but compared to 
the microsurgical techniques that we will need to ferret out 
dinosaur DNA, it is like trying to figure out how an antique 
watch worked by smashing it open with a sledgehammer. 

If we are lucky enough to find a mite or a horsefly that 
hkiiiceriic into a pool of sun-warmed or very fluid tree sop 
after oitinq a dinosaur, then the resin might have preserved 
in that insect thousands of dinosaur cells, each conta ; n'ny ir 
its nucleus a copy of the genetic blueprints necessary for 
building a dinosaur. My colleagues and I are drawing up 
plans for microscanners that— when we have the technology 
to build them, in about 15 years— will allow us to probe 
those ancient cells and build copies of their genetic 
blueprints in a computer. The trick lies in removing the nu- 

n genetic and computer technology that have taken place blueprints in a compu 

I wonder if anyone except Michael 

Crichton ever read my Dinosaur 
Capsule" article. But he was enough. 

since. Ic say wear.- rioln on srheci.ilo wilt- 20 year;; still lo ;;o. 

Perhaps the most important genetic advance we've seen 
so far, in terms of paleontology, is a little tongue-twister 
called the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It works some- 

.."J -■:■ i.i L''I-,.A ;:■ [i or "■"■;'■.■'. !"■"; poi'.'-'i::- n'lp '■■■, 

millions of times, a faint signal consisting of only a few frag- 
ments of DNA. Using PCR, a team of paleontologists at the 
American Museum of Natural History in New York City be- 
came the first to identify replicable pieces of DNA in an 
amber- em bedded termite from the Dominican Republic dat- 
ing back to 25 to 30 million B.C. If portions of a genetic cod- 
ing system can survive that long, it's not much of a leap from 
25 or 30 million years ago to, say, 70 or 90 million years 
ago— the time ot dinosaurs. 

clous oi ..Lii cell in about 10 pieces, without dis- 
turbing any of its neighboring— and equally precious— cells, 
and then preserving the pieces so that we can scan them as 
often as we like, as easily as one scans a laser-engraved 
compact disk. In this manner, we can build complete copies 
of dinosaur chromosomes by sampling as few as a dozen 
amberized cells— and, as I have said, a single bite from a fly 
probably contains thousands of cells. 

Considering the value— both scientific and monetary— of 
each of those cells, we cannot afford to sacrifice more than 
a dozen cells to come up with dinosaur genetic blueprints. 
Translator-: Searching lor dinosaur genes with present-day 
technology is out o : i-io quosi on. PCR would require crack- 
ing open a piece of amberized flesh and using up every one 

of the thousands of cells within. The proc- 
ess is somewhat like burning a book as couic 
you read it, capturing only a sentence after 
nere and there. None of my colleagues odditi 

simply to enter the record 

first to recover dinosaur genes from what r 
amber. The saurian tissue, if such is Schwei 
preserved, has already waited 95 mil- 
lion years. Surely we sapient newcom- 
ers can wait 15 or 20 years more. 

On another front, there may exist on 
the horizon a newer and much more 
expendable source of dinosaur DNA 
During the summer of 1993. a remark- 
ably well-preserved Allosaurus femur ' 
Jurassic age 
shipping to ft 

who noticed something he'd 
before spilling out of its cer 
dish-brown substance thai 
all the world like intact bone 

g the illusion that a petrified crab 

:>uld still display its original colors 

ter millions of years. But now such 

begin to make perfect sense 

Having looked at what the rest of us 

the have seen for decades and thought 

3 turning much of what we 
thought we knew about the process of birdF Anhis writing, the first attempt 
fossiiization upside down. 

Every new class of paleontology 
students learns from textbooks that fos 

initial observation too crazy: Certain 
structures in the marrow looked a little 
too much like they belonged fo birds. 

I used to believe that paleontologist 
Robert Bakker had gotten a bit too car- 
ried away with birds. A Bakker lecture 
typically goes something like this: 

e 3-D images tools In the 

DNA from T. rex bones has 
unsuccessful, but certainly there 
be further attempts using better 

of the 

sting. American 
of Natural History enlomolo- 
smashed in half during gist Paul Wygodzinski and I discovered 
Mark Newman, in 1978 that preserved muscle fibers in 
;en amberizco i"soc:a pieaented an aston- 
3d- ishing exception to this rule, but with 
for the Schweitzer revelations the impor- 
tance of my amber studies diminishes, 
er- This is no cause for despair, only ap- 
plause. When a pet theory is altered or 
diminished under the weight of new ev- 
idence, the new theory that rises on its 

ested in this. Newman thoughl, and , 
week later, physicist Jim Powell and 
were looking through an electron micrc 
scope at the impossible The 
bone must have baked under 
the sun for hundreds, perhaps 
thousands, of years before 
wafer got anywhere near it, 
until it somehow mummified. 
We beheld a strange landscape 
of marrow vesicles studded 
with objects that looked like 
a histology 






i impossibly pi 

fine" structures of the bones them- 
selves, that Bakker has been on the 
right track all along: Some of the large, 
predatory dinosaurs resembled birds 
more than I thought possible. After all 
is said and done, tyrannosaurs and al- 
losaurs begin to look like parakeets de- 
signed by Stephen King. 

Ultimately, our break ng of the saurian 
genetic code will make use of several 
simplifications that I have made in the 
dinosaur cloning recipe, including a 
"match and patch" ap- 
proach that will eveniually 
allow us to line up copies 
of DNA segments from as 
few as 10 cells on a com- 
puter screen, somewhat 

Horner's lab 
the Rockies. 

Horner— the paleontologist upon whom 
Sam Neill's character in the film version 
of Jurassic Park was based— and he 
immediately referred me to Mary 
Schweitzer, who had found equally 
strange structures in a T. rex bone. A 
mparison showed that 

foundations (or sometimes on its < 
may be even more exciting. The ; 
preservation hinted at in amber, offer- 
ing the best known protection ai 
the ravages of time, might actually be 
more the rule than the exception. Thus, 
the "exception" that Wygodzinski and I 
material looked chillingly like found may well be no exception at all 

n oi ■:■ 



■ speculates that many ready have ir 
s contain some of their 


original organic matei 
since she brought up 
I've been unable to force out of my 
mind some 15-mi I lion -year-old crabs I 
found with what appeared to be origi- 
nal pigment in their claws, displaying 

i. We; 

the s 

found on the claws of their present-liv- 
ing relatives. I remember making ex- 
cuses for the fossil record, suggesting 
that organic pigments had somehow 
affected the process of mineralization, 
so that darker minerals settled into the 
same black spots seen 
Ihe crabs' 

molecules, and otht 
Ever shaped organic compounds that ha 1 
possibility, survived more than four billion years 

cosmic-ray exposure inside certain 
carbon-rich, stony meleorites. As 
above, so below. Organic compounds 
can be startlingly resilient. Allosaur 
marrow is only a few tens of millions of 
years old, and it may be time to begin 
looking for dinsaur DNA in places we 
never imagined it to exist. 

Allosaurus: best described as a 
leaner, meaner version of T. rex. Just If 
imagine a velociraptor 18 feet ti " 
t the claws of When Powell and I first began probi 
thus produc- Ihe allosaur marrow, we considered i 

3 patti 

trum. All of these socstio'iis 

damaged by the decay of 
carbon 14, polassium 40, 

ray, but this problem is not 

much different from the 

one encountered by ar- 
chaeologists now dealing with multiple 
copies of the Book of Isaiah, every one 
of them scattered in pieces and mostly 
missing, among the Dead Sea Scrolls. 
In both cases, a program for "matching 
and patching" missing segments — lor 
building a single composite "texi" Iron 1 
partly damaged copies— solves the 
problem. For dinosaurs, "match and 
patch" means we won't have to make a 
"best guess"— as I had proposed in 
the original recipe and as bioengineers 
did in Jurassic Part— requiring us to 
borrow missing bits of genetic code 
from frogs, reptiles, and/or birds. 

Match-and-patch technology will 
work best with DNA embedded in 
amber, where we have already found 
insect cells so perfectly intact as to 
rival the level of preservation achieved 
when Canadian Balsam, also a form of 
free sap, is smeared over cells during 
Ihe preparation of a microscope slide. 

portion of DNA. the adjacent sections 
will be held in place by the surrounding 
resin, as if in glue. Still, with an esti- 

mated 100,000 genes needed to build 
a dinosaur, each cell nucleus can be 
com pais d to a partly intact jigsaw puz- 
zle the size of a small parking lot. For 
my allosaur femur and Schweitzer's T. 
rex bone, in which DNA fragments (if 
such exist) we 

but it 

rial ti 

multiple copies of the jigsaw puzzle 
thrown up in the air and mixed to- 
gether. Though not impossible to solve, 
the bone puzzle will require at leasl 
20,000 times more effort to assemble 
than one found in amber. 

There may exist, however, a third 
path to the dinosaur genome, one that 
in terms of difficulty and availability o' 
material lies somewhere between 
amber and bones. Using high-resolu- 
tion machines that were still at an ex- 
perimental stage, Powell and I made 
the first magnetic resonance imaging 
(MRI) scans of T. rex eggs in 1993, We 
did not find embryonic bones inside 
those eggs, but we did behold < 
on to logical tale in which a 20- inch -long 
egg looked as If it was stepped on 
shortly after being laid. 

MRI enables us to see into dinosaur 
eggs without having to etch their min- 
eral casings away with acids, which 
are notoriously unfriendly to DNA. Link- 

ing MRI scanners to computers, we 
hope to reconstruct skeletal dinosaur 
embryos as on-screen 3-D images. Al- 
though some of the bones nestled 
within dinosaur eggs are literally paper- 
thin, the level of preservation is many 
orders of magnitude above our child- 
femur. If Powell and I are right, then 
DNA residing in embryonic bones will 
tend to be far more intact than anything 
we are likely to find in the adult femur. 

Now that amber and soon perhaps 
fragments of bone may yield up di- 
nosaur DNA, we paleontologists are 
emerging into a strange new world in 

and sunlight breaking down and elimi- 
nating all old DNA are wrong. I used to 
believe, not very long ago, that diamonds 
were the world's most resilient and val- 
uable form of carbon. Now I see dia- 
monds about to be dethroned by DNA ■ 
by little snippets of ancient genetic code. 
■ne like bits 
backyard fence. 
You cannot look at the surreal devel- 
opments of the past decade and a half 

ture has really been up to all these hun- 
dreds of millions of years. Even without 
assistance from tree sap-turned-to- 
amber, DNA is the ultimate survivor, 

"Apparently soldier ants now have a nuclear capability. " 

and perhaps even the ultimate para- 
site. For billions of years, it has man- 
aged to preserve its same, essential 
residing for a little while in 

terium, and then moving on, fully intact, 
to the next generation. You may like to 
think that your genes serve your best 
interests, but in a very real sense, it is 
quite the other way around. They sim- 
ply orchestrate the construction of 
bodies, then occut 

producing or maintaining reproductive 
systems, so they can carry on in fresh 
young bodies just as ours begin to 
wear out. Every breath you take, every 
sip ot water, every bite of tood immor- 
talizes your genetic code, not you. 

Commenting on this, the philosopher- 
scence fic'.ion writer George Zebrowski 
observed, "We, then, are just one of the 
many masks that DNA will wear," 

So, too. were the dinosaurs. We are 
learning now that occupying or renting 
our bodies is not the only way that DNA 
survives. So long as the carriers of 
chromosomes managed to cover the 
earth thickly enough, infecting every 
nook and cranny with bits ot living tis- 
sue, some small amount of DNA was 
bound to take up permanent residence 
wherever it found an environment ca- 
pable of preserving it. At least in an 
analogous sense, the giants do indeed 
appear merely to have been sleeping 
in the earth, waiting for the planet to 
evolve brains capable of resurrecting 
their genetic blueprints. If this is so, do 
we then define life as simply a property 
of the carbon atom, as an information- 
storage system written on nucleic acid 
and read by protein? And if the answer 
is yes, should strands of DNA embed- 
ded in amber or bone still be considered 
alive after tens of millions of years? 

Can it be that we are on the verge of 
redefining not only the word "extinct" 
but our notions of life and death as 
well? It so, and if we begin to view DNA 

■.nrti il 

bodies for a while o 
contemptuous indifference, then in the 
end it is DNA that rules humanity and 
the earth. Everything else is hubris. 

Which brings us to the notion that, 
for better or for worse, we will soon 
have the ability to take charge not only 
of our own evolutionary destiny but that 
of the entire planet. 

Yet— and perhaps reassuringly- 
technological hurdles remain. Presently 
we can print copies of the genetic 
code, but we can actually read and un- 
derstand just a few fragments of the 
book of life. We are in a position much 
like that of the Egyptologists who came 
upon hauntingly beautiful hieroglyphs 

Article by Keith Ferrell 



■ he construction of 

worlds is 

fiction of- 
suspend our 
to the very 


Tthe particular challenges that \ 
fers writers. Not simply worlds 
disbelief, but worlds that are also 
smallest ot details. 

In what may turn out to be the 
series of all, David Wingrove has created an earth trans- 
formed—an earth become in many ways Chung Kuo, the 
Middle Kingdom. (Chung Kuo is the an- 
cient name for China.) In Wingrove'f 
hands Chung Kuo has indeed come 
to cover the earth of the late twenty- 
second and early twenty-third cen- 
turies. The planet is dominated bj 


seven regions, each ruled by a T'ang. 
or lord, whose power is inherited, and 
whose power is huge. Li Yuan, T'ang 
of Europe, is at the heart of the series. 
Series may be a misnomer. Chung 
Kuo is more of a cycle of novels than a 
discrete series of adventures. Indeed, 
Wingrove's accomplishment may have 
more in common with, say, C. P. 
Snow's Strangers and Brothers than, 
say. Isaac Asimov's Foundation se- 
ries. This is not to say that Chung Kuo 
isn't SF. It most definitely is. But 
Wingrove's approach. 

all draw as much upon the realistic 
tradition as upon the fantastic, 

Chung- Kuo thus far consists" of five 
huge novels, with at least two more to 
come. Beginning with the unexpected 
ascent of Li Yuan to power, Wingrove guides his story — 
■ and his readers — through every level of his world. The 
sheer number of characters in the saga is staggering, 
and readers will come to appreciate the dramatis per- 
sonae listing, as well as the glossary of Chinese words 
and phrases. A formal chronology would be helpful. 

Wingrove nevertheless manages to make his charac- 
ters distinct and memorable. Even minor figures have a 

past, have memories, dreams, ambitions. Their actions 
and interactions have ramifications that ripple and rgn 
throughout subsequent actions and interactions. They fall 
in love, have children who grow and t>e come. characters 
themselves. They rise from the depths of society— the 
Clay, in Chung Kuo's idiom — and they fall back. They live 
and die. Their deaths hurt. Perhaps Chung Kuo's closest 
analog is Le Comedie Humane rather than C. P. Snow, 

Only occasionally does Wingrove's 
inv.entiveness let him down or the re- 
quirements of his plot force him into 
unfortunate corners. There have been 
perhaps one too many wild assassina- 

More rare are the moments when the 
cycle risks assuming the feel of a 
comic operetta conspiracy plot These 
are blips, understand, in the overall 
pattern of Chung Kuo. The vast major- 
ity of the cycle's scenes and incidents. 
its motivating plots, are beautifully re- 
alized, and occasionally brilliantly so. 
Wingrove possesses a superb sense 
of the almost Brownian currents which 
drive slow political change from within. 
the speed with which those currents 
can be altered by chaos from without. 
Like much science fiction, the series 
is about Change. On the largest level, 
Chung Kuo deals with the changes 
sweeping over the world. An Old Way is 
dying, with reformers, radicals, and con- 
spirators vying to control the nature of 
the New. Bui Chung Kuo is equally con- 
cerned with the ways in which people 
changed— by events both beyond and 
within their control. Wingrove's world is memorable, but 
some of his characters are unforgettable. 

And the novelistic building of the worlds of the human 
heart is an accomplishment vaster even than the con- 
struction of one of SFs most believable worlds On every 
imaginable level, Chung Kuo is the achievement of a 
master world-builder. DO 

change — and a 


A mm lis II 

Wi mi 

■ ■ & i 


heroes were Abraham Lincoln and Albert Einstein. Lincoln was out 
of the question, but with a little work I could look Einsteinesque. 1 grew 
a_dark mustache, adopted wild graying hair. From wardrobe I requisi- 

n shirt, a gabar- 

ne detail ol 

[might bag. 

d bought a 
r I rented a 

tioned a pair of wool slacks, a white cott 

dine jacket with narrow lapels. The shoes 

prized possession— genuine leather, Australian copies of 

mid twentieth-century brogues, comfortable, well broken in. 

The prep-room mirror reflected back a handsomer, taller, 

younger relative of old Albert, a cross between Einstein and 

her psychiatrist Dr. Greenson. 

The moment- universes surrounding the evening of Satur- 
day, August 4 were so thoroughly burned— tourists, biogra- 
phers, conspiracy hunters, mast urbators— that there was no 
sense arriving then. Besides, I wanted to get a taste ol the 
old LA, before the quake. So I selected the Friday, evening 
18:00 PDT moment-universe. I materialized in a stall in the 
men's room at the Santa Monica Municipal Airport. Some 
aim ior deserted places; I like airports, train stations, bUB 
terminals. Lots of strangers if you've missed s 
costume. Public transport easily available. Ci 
oneself in. The portable unit, disguised as an c 
never looks out of place. I stopped in a shop 
couple of packs of Luckies. At the Hertz coun 
navy blue Plymouth with push-button transmission, threw 
my canvas camera bag and overnight case into the back 
and, checking the map, puzzled out the motel address on 
Wilshire Boulevard that Research had found for me. 

The hotel was ersatz Spanish, pink stucco and a red tile 
roof, a colonnade around a courtyard pool where a teenage 
boy in white T-shirt and DA haircut leaned on a cleaning net 
and flirted with a couple of fifteen-year-old girls. I 
in the shadowed doorway of my room, smoked_ 
a Lucky and watched until a 
caftan came out and yelled at the boy 
get back to work. The girls giggled. 

The early evening I spent driving 
around. In Santa Monica I £ 

tell Greenson she was going to visit 
SLTurday night before she changed 
her mind and stayed home. I ate at 
the Dancers: a slab of prime rib, a 
baked potato the size of a football, e 
bottle of zinfandel. Afterward I drove 
my Plymouth along the Miracle Mile, 
rolled down the windows and ' 
air wash over me, inspecting the strip joint; 
theaters, bars, and hookers. A number of the 
women, looking like her in cotton-candy 
and tight dresses, gave me the eye as I cruised t 
I pulled into the lot beside a club called the 
Over the door a blue neon martini glass swamped a green 
neon olive in gold neon gin. Inside I ordered a scotch and 
listened to a trio play jazz. A thin while guy with a goatee 
strangled his saxophone: somewhere in there might be a 
melody. These cutting-edge late-moderns thought they had 
the future augured. The future would be cool and atonal, 

78 OMNI 

they thought. No squares allowed. They didn't understand 
that the future, like the present, would be dominated by saps, 
and the big rush of 2043 would be barbershop quartets. 

I sipped scotch. A brutal high, alcohol, like putting your 
head in a vise. I liked it. I smoked a couple more Luekles, 
layering a nicotine buzz over the alcohol. I watched couples 
in the dim corners of booths talk about their pasts and their 
futures, all those words prelude to going to bed. Back in 
Brentwood she was spending another sleepless night ha- 
rassed by calls telling her to leave Bobby Kennedy alone. 

A woman with dark Jackie hair, black gloves, and a very 
low-cut dress sat down on the stool nest to me. The song 
expired and there was a smattering of applause. "I hate this 
modern crap, don't you?" the woman said. 

"It's emblematic of the times," I said. 

She gave me a look, decided to laugh. "You can have 

"I was born in Germany." 

I sipped my scotch. "You could say so." Her eyelids 
were heavy with shadow, eyelashes a centimeter long. Pale 
pink lipstick made her thin lips look cool; I wondered il they 
really were. "Let me buy you a drink." 

"Thanks," She watched me lumble with the queer, nine- 
teenth-century style currency. Pyramids with eyes on them, 
redeemable in silver on demand. I bought her a gin 
"s Carol," she told me. 

stranger. We fell toward a typical liaison of 
illin Era: we learned enough about each ot 
jw much ol it true?) not t 
know come between us and what we wanted. Her image of 
me was compounded by her own fantasies. I didn't have so 
many illusions. Or maybe mine were larger still, since I 
knew next-to-nothing about these people other than what 
I'd gleaned from images projected on various screens. Ar 
image had brought me here; images were my job. They had 

something to do with reality, but more 
to do with desire. 

I studied the cleavage displayed by 
Carol's dress, she leaned against my 
shoulder, and Irom this we generated a 
lust we imagined would turn to sweet 
compassion, make up for our losses, 
and leave us blissfully complete in the 
same place. We would clutch each 
other's bodies until we were spent, lie 
holding each other close, our souls com- 
mingled, the first moment of a perfect 
marriage that would extend forward 
from this night in an endless string of 
equally fulfilling nights. Then we'd part 
in the morning and never see each 
other again. That was the dream. I fol- 
lowed her back to her apartment and 
we did our best to produce it. Afterward 
I lay awake thinking- of Gabrielle, just 
after we'd married, sunbathing on the 
screened beach at Nice. I'd watched 
her, as had the men who passed by. 
How much ol her wanted us to look at 
her? Was there any difference, in her 
mind, between my regard and theirs? 

I left Carol ask 
dawn coming up 

f962 i* 


the appropri- 
ate amount of kitsch, nol-dog stands 
shaped like hot dogs and chiroprac- 
icirs offices like flying saucers, but the 
really big skyscrapers that would come 
down in the quake hadn't been built yet. 
Maybe some ol them wouldn't be built 
in this time-line anymore, thanks to me. 
By now my presence, through the but- 
terfly effect, had already set this history 
off down another path from the one of 
my home. Anything I did toppled domi- 
noes. Perhaps Carol's life would be ru- 
ined by the memory of our night of 
perfect love. Perhaps the cigarettes I 
bought saved crucial lives. Perhaps the 
bit:e/K of my Plymouth's passing brought 
rain lo Belgrade, drought to India. For 
better or worse, who could say? 

I killed time into the early evening. 
By now she was going through the two- 
hour session with Greenson trying to 
shore up her personality against that 
night's depression. 

At 9:00 I took my camera bag and 

o the pin 

e sleep of my own. 

Saturday I spent touring 
pre-quake LA. I indulged vices 
I could not indulge in Munich 
in 2043. I smoked many ciga- 
rettes. I walked outside in di- 
rect sunlight. I bought a copy 
of the Wilhelm edition of the I 
Ching, printed on real paper. At 
midafternoon I stepped into a 
diner and ordered a bacon 
cheeseburger, rare, with lett 
tomato and a side of fries. M 
watered as the waitress set it i 
me, but after two bites I felt 
a wave of nausea. Hands sticky with 
blood and mayonnaise, I watched the 
grease congeal in the corner of the plate. 

So far, so good. I was a fan of the 
dirty pleasures of the twentieth century. 
Things were so much more complicated 
then. People walked the streets under 
the shadow of the bomb. They all knew. 
at some almost biological level, that 
they might be vaporized at any sec- 
ond. Their blood vibrated with angst. 
Even the blonde ones. I imagined my 
ancestors half a world away in a coun- 
try they expected momentarily to turn 
into a radioactive battleground, carrying 
their burden of guilt through the Eng- 
lischer Garten. Sober Adenauer, strug- 
gling to stitch together half a nation. 
None of them fat, bored, or decadent. 

And Marilyn, the world over, was 
their goddess. That improbable fe- 
male body, that infantile voice, that 







housekeeper. If what had happened in 
our history was true in this one, she'd 
gone to sleep at midevening. I stepped 
quietly through the back door, found 
her in her bedroom and slapped a 
sedative patch onto her forearm, hold- 
ing my hand across her mouth against 
her struggling until she was out, 

A long phone cord snaked down the 
hall from the living room and under the 
other bedroom door. The door was 
locked. Outside, I pushed through the 
shrubs, mucking up my shoes in the 
soft soil, reached in through the bars 
over the opened window, and pushed 
aside the blackout curtains. Marilyn 
sprawled face down across the bed, 
right arm dangling off the side, receiver 
clutched in her hand. I found the un- 
barred casement window on the adja- 
cent side of the house, broke it open, 
then climbed inside. Her breathing was 
deep and irregular. Her skin was clammy. 
Only the faintest pulse at her neck, 

I rolled her onto her back, got my bag, 
iyicc! back her eyelid and shone a light 
into her eye. Her pupil 
rely contracted. I had 
me late on purpose, but 

apomorphine, lifted hi 
the bed and should 

her toward the b, 

She was surprisingly gl'i - 

gaunt, even. I could feel 

her ribs In th< 

full of plaster a 

3 toile 

the portable unit and got into the rental 
car. It was still too early, but I was so 
keyed up I couldn't sit still. I drove up 
the Pacific Coast Highway, walked 
along the beach at Malibu, then turned 
around and headed back. Sunset 
Boulevard twisted through the hills. The 
lights ol the houses flickered between 
trees.. In Brentwood I had some trouble 
finding Carmelina, drove past, then 
doubled back. Marilyn's house was on 
Fiflh Helena, a short street off 
Carmelina ending in a cul-de-sac. I 
parked at the end, slung my bags over 
my shoulder, and- walked back. 

A brick and stucco wall shielded the 
house from the street. I circled round 
through the neighbor's yard, pushed 
through the bougainvillea and ap- 
proached from the back. It was a mod- 
es! hacienda-style ranch, a couple of 
bedrooms, tile roof. The patio lights 
were off and the water in the pool lay 
smooth as dark glass. Lights shone 
from the end bedroom to the lar left. 

First problem would be to get rid ol 
Eunice Murray, her companion and 

some undigested capsules. That would 
have been a good sign, except she ha- 
bitually pierced them with a pin so 
they'd work faster. There was no way of 
telling how much Nembutal she had in 
her bloodstream. 

I dug my thumb into the crook ol her 
elbow, forcing the tendon. Did she 
inhale more strongly? "Wake up. 
Norma Jeane," I said. "Time to wake 
up." No reaction. 

I took her back to the bed and got 
the blood filter out of my camera bag. 
The studio'd had me practicing on indi- 
gents hired from the state. I wiped a 
pharmacy's worth ol pill bottles from 
Ihe flimsy table next to the bed and set 
up the machine. The shunt slipped eas- 
ily into the artery in her arm, and I fid- 
dled with the How until the readout went 
green. What with one thing and another 
I had a busy hall hour before she was 
resting In bed, bundled up, feet ele- 
vated, asleep but breathing normally. 
God in his heaven, and her blood cir- 
culating merrily through the filter like 
money through my bank account. 

I went outside and smoked a ciga- 
rette. The stars were out and a breeze 
had kicked up. On the tile threshold 
outside the front door words were em- 
blazoned: "Cursum Perficio." I am fin- 
ishing my journey. I looked in on Mrs. 
Murray. Still out. I went back and sat in 
the bedroom. The place was a mess. 
Forests ot pill bottles covered every 
horizon lal surlace. A slack ot Sinatra 
records sat on the record player. On 
top: "High Hopes." Loose-leaf binders 
lay scattered all over the floor. I picked 
one up. it was a script lor Something's 
Got to Give. ■ 

I read through the script. It wasnl very 
good. ADout 2:00 a.m. she moaned 
and started to move. I slapped a clari- 
fier patch onto her arm. It wouldn't 
push the pentobarbital out of her sys- 
tem any faster, but when it began to 
take hold it would make her feel better. 

About 3:00 the blood lilter beeped. I 
removed the shunt, sat her up. made 
her drink a liter of electrolyte. It took her 
a while to gel it all down. She looked at 
me through fogged eyes. She 
smelled sour and did not look 
like the most beautiful woman 
in the world. "What hap- 
pened?" she mumbled 

"You took too many pills. 
You're going to be all right " 

I helped her into a robe, 
then walked her down the 
hallway and around the living 

"Alive. Bad luck." She started to cry. 
"Cruel, all of them, all those bastards. 
Oh. Jesus . . ." 

I let her go on lor a while. I gave her 
a handkerchief and she dried her eyes, 
blew her nose. The most beautiful 
woman in the world. "Who are you?" 

"My ni 

is Detlev G ruber. Call rt 

"What are you doing here? Where's 
Mrs. Murray?" 

"You don't remember? You sent her 

She took a sip of coffee, watching 
me over the rim of the cup. 

"I'm here to help you. Marilyn. To 

"Rescue me?" 

"I know how hard things are, how 
lonely you've been. I knew that you 
would try to kill yourself." 

"I was just trying to get some sleep." 

"Do you really think that's all there is 
to it?" 

"Listen, misler, I don't know who you 


some of the weight herself. At 
one end of the room hung a 
couple of lurid Mexican Day 
of the Dead masks, at the 
other a tramed portrait of Lincoln. When 
I got tired of facing down the leering 
ghouls and honest Abe. I took her out- 
side and we marched around the pool 
in the darkness. The breeze wrote cat! 







her the simple truth. Miller had wrillen 
how grateful she was every time he'd 
saved her life, and it looked like that re- 
action was coming through for me now. 
She'd always liked being rescued, and 
the men who rescued her. ■ 

The clarifier might have had some- 
thing to do with it, too. Finally she 
protested. "How do you know all this?" 

"This is going lo be the hardest part, 
Marilyn. I know because I'm from the 
future. II I had not shown up here, you 
would have died tonight, it's recorded 

She laughed. "From the future?" 



"I'm not lying to you, Marilyn. If I 
didn't care, would you be alive now?" 

She pulled the blanket tighter around 
her. "What does the future want with me?" 

"You're the most famous actress of 
your era. Your death would be a great 
tragedy, and we want to prevent that." 

"What good does this do me? I'm 
still stuck in the same shit." 

"You don't have to be." 
e tried to look skeptical 

iS surface of the water. After 
he began to come around. 
She tried lo pull away but was weak as 
a baby. "Let me go," she mumbled. 

"You want to stop walking?" 

"I want to sleep," she said. 

"Keep walking." We circled the pool 
for another quarter hour. In the dis- 
tance I heard sparse traffic on Sunset; 
nearer the breeze rustled the fan 
palms. I was sweaty, she was cold. 

"Please," she whined. "Lei's stop." 

I let her down onto a patio chair, 
went inside, found some coffee and set 
a pot brewing. I brought a blanket out, 
wrapped her in it, poked her to keep 
her awake until the coffee was ready. 
Eventually she sat there sipping coffee, 
holding the cup in both hands to warm 
them, hair down in her eyes and eye- 
lashes gummed together. She looked 
tired. "How are you?" I asked. 

are but I don't need your help and il you 
dont get out of here pretty soon I'm going 
to call the police." Her voice trailed off 
pitifully at the end. "I'm sorry." she said. 

"Don't be sorry. I'm here to save you 
from all this." 

Hands shaking, she put down the 
cup. I had never see 
nerable. She tried to 
pression was lull of need. I felt an urge 
to protect her that, despite the fact she 
was a wreck, was pure sex. "I'm cold." 
she said. "Can we go inside?" 

We went inside. We sat in the living 
room, she on the sofa and I in an un- 
comfortable Spanish chair, and I told 

. The a 

mpis. The 

Kennedy affairs 
treated her. More than that, the fear of 
loneliness, the fear of insanity, the fear 
ol aging. I found myself warming to the 
role of rescuer. I really did want to hold 
her, for more than one reason. She was 
not able to keep up her hostility in Ihe 
face of the knowledge that I was telling 

every tremble ol her body. 
It was Irightening. "I want 
you to come with me back 
to the future, Marilyn." 

She stared at me. "You 
must be crazy. I wouldn't 
know anybody. No friends, 

"You don't have any 
family. Your mother is in an 

institution. And where were 
your friends tonight?" 
She put her hand to her head, rubbed 
her forehead, a gesture so full of trou- 
bled intelligence that I had a sudden 
sense of her as a real person, a grown 
woman in a lot of trouble. "You don't 

not worth it. I'm nolhing but trouble." 

"I can cure your trouble. In the fu- 
ture we have ways. No one here really 
cares for you, Marilyn, no one truly un- 
derstands you. That dark pit of despair 
that opens up inside you— we can fill it. 
We can heal the wounds you've had 
since you were a little girl, make up for 
all the neglect you've suffered, keep 
you young lorever. We have these pow- 
ers. It's my job to correct the mistakes 
of the past, for special people. You're 
one of them. I have a team of care- 
givers waiting for you, a home, emo- 
tional support, understanding." 

"Yeah. Another institution. I can't 
take it." I came over, sat beside her, 
lowered my voice, looked her in the 
eyes. Time for the closer. "You know 
that poem— that Yeats poem?" 
"What poem?" 

'"Never Give All the Heart.'" Re- 
search had made me memorize it. It 
was one of her favorites. 

"Never give all the heart, for love, 
Will hardly seem worth thinking ot 
To passionate women if it seem 
Certain, and they never dream 
That it fades out from kiss to kiss 
For everything that's lovely is 
But a brief, dreamy, kind delight . . 
She stopped me. "What about it?" 

the poem, brief, and you don't have to 
suffer. You don't have to give all the 
heart, and lose." 

She sat there, wound in the blanket. 
Clearly I had touched something in her. 

"Think about it," I said. I went out- 
side and smoked another Lucky. When 
I'd started working for DAA I'd consid- 
ered this a glamour job. Exotic times, 
famous people. And I was good at it. A 
quick study, smart, adaptable Sincere 
I was so good that Gabrielle came to 
hate me, and left. 

After a considerable while Marilyn 
came outside, the blanket over her 
head and shoulders like an Indian. 

"Well, kemosabe?" I asked. 

Despite herself, she smiled. Although 
the light was dim, the crow's leet at the 
corners of her eyes were visible. "If I 
don't like it, will you bring me back?" 

nervous. I held her hand, she h 
dog. "Here we go. Marilyn." 

I touched the switch o " 

Marilyn's living n 

n receded from us 

e fell like pebbles 

, and from infinitely far 

t stage at DAA rushed 

irround us. The dog 

growled. Marilyn swayed, put a hand to 

her head. I held her arm to steady her. 

From the control booth Scoville and 


;, But 


promise I'll bring you back." 

"Okay. What do I have to do?" 

"Just pack a few things to take with 
you— the most important ones." 

I waited while she threw some clothes 
into a suitcase. She took the Lincoln 
portrait off the wall and put it in on top. 
I bagged the blood lilter and set up the 
portable unit in the living room. 

"Maf!" she said. 


"My dog!" She looked crushed, as il 
she were about to collapse. "Who'll 
take care of Mar?" 

"Mrs. Murray will." 

"She hates him! I can't trust her." 
She was disintegrating. "I can't go This 
isn't a good idea." 

"Where is Maf? We'll take him." 

We went out to the guest house. The 
place stunk. The dog, sleeping on an 
old fur coat, launched himself at me, 
yapping, as soon as we opened the 
door. It was one ol those inbred over- 
groomed toy poodles that you wanl to 
drop kick into the next universe. She 
picked him up, cooed over him, made 
me get a bag of dog food and his 
water dish. I gritted my teeth. 

In the living room I moved the chair 
aside and made her stand in the center 
of the room while I laid the wire circle 
around us to outline the field. She was 

;. The ni 

Marilyn's other side. "Marilyn, 
nurse who's going to help you get 
" ' "his is Derek Scoville, 


We got her into the suite an( 
doctors shot her full of metal 
cleansers. I promised her I'd take 
of Maf, then pawned the dog off o; 
staff. I held her hand, smiled rea 

ingly. e 

^p. Lying there she looked calm. 
confident. She liked being cared for: 
she was used to it. Now she had a 
whole new world waiting to take care of 
her She thought. 

I went to the prep room, showered, 
and switched to street clothes: an onyx 
Singapore silk shirt, cotton baggies, 
spex. The weather report said it was a 
bad UV day: I selected a broad-brimmed 

hat. I was inspecting my shoes, which 
looked ruined from the muck from Mari- 
lyn's garden, when a summons from 
Scoville showed in the corner of my 
spex: meet them in the conference 

there, and the doctor, and Jason Cryer 
from publicity. "So, what do you think?" 
Levine asked me ; 

"She's in pretty rough shape. Physi- 
cally she can probably take it, but emo- 
tionally she's a wreck." 

"Tomorrow we'll inject her with 
nanorepair devices," the doctor said. 
"She's probably had some degree of 
renal damage, if not worse." 

"Christ, have you seen her scars?" 
Levine said. "How many operations 
has she had? Did they just take a 
cleaver to them back then?" 

"They took a cleaver first, then an 
airbrush," Sally said. 

"We'll fix the scars," said Cryer. Leg- 
end had it the most dangerous place in 
Hollywood was between Cryer and a 
news camera. "And Detlev here will be 
her protector, right Del? After all, you 
■ saved her life. You're her friend. Her 
dad. Her lover, if it comes to that." 

"Right," I said. I thought about Mari- 
lyn, asleep at last. What expectations 
did sfiehave? 

Scoville spoke for the first time. "I 


^% tj > 


mm jp> 


I Fentriss sat up in his chair in the garden in the middle of he said, at last. "They do go on." He leaned forward 
a fine autumn and listened. The drink in his hand re- and listened intently. } "Yes ..." murmured Fentriss, 
mained unsipped, his triend Black unspoken to, the line eyes shut, nodding to the rhythms that sprang like tresh 

I house unnoticed, the very weather itself neglected, for rain from the tree just above their heads. 

I there was a veritable fountain of sound in the air above ". . . ohmigod , , . indeed." P Black rose as if to move 
them, J) "My God," he said. "Oo you hear?" p "What, the under the tree and peer up. Fentriss protested with a 
birds?" asked his friend Black, doing just the opposite: fierce whisper: Ji "Don't spoil it. Sit, Be very still. Where's 
sipping his drink, noticing the weather, admiring the my pencil 1 Ah . . ." "V Half peering around, he found a 

pencil and notepad, shut his 


eyes and began to scribble, 
blindly, b The birds sang. J> 
"You're not actually writing 
down their song?" said 
Black. J "What does it look 
like? Quiet." J* And with eyes now open, now shul, Fen- 

rich house, and neglecting 
the birds entirely 
moment. "V "Great God in 
heaven, listen to them!" cried 
Fentriss. J» Black listened. 
"Rather nice." I "Clean out" 
your ears!" £ Black made a half-hearted gesture 

symbolizing the cleaning out of ears. "Well?" J> "Damn triss drew scales and jammed in the notes. P "I didn't 
it, don't be Tunny, 1 mean really lis ten! They're singing a know you read music," said Black, astonished. ;"l 
!" £ "Birds usually do." J "No they don't; birds paste played the violin until my father brake it. Please! There. 
I together bits and pieces maybe, five or six notes, eight There. Yes!" L "Slower," he whispered. "Wait for me." J> 
I at the most. Mockingbirds have repertoires that As if hearing, the birds adjusted their lilt, moving toward 
I change, but not entire melodies. These birds are differ- piano instead of bravado, b A breeze stirred the leaves 
ent. Now shut up and give over!" J Both men sat, en- like an invisible conductor, and'the singing died. Ji Fen- 
chanted, Black's expression melted. /'Til be damned," triss, perspiration beading his forehead, stopped scrib- 

bling and (ell back. 

"I'll be damned." Black gulped his drink. "What 
that all about?" 

"Writing a song." Fentriss stared at the scales he had 



"Wait." The tree shook itself gently, 
ther notes. "I want to be sure they're done." 


Black seized the pages and let his eyes drift over thi 
scales. "Jesus, Joseph and Mary," he said, aghast. "It works: 
He glanced up at the thick green of the tree, where no throat 
warbled, no wing stirred. "What kind of t 

"The birds of forever, the small bea; 
Musical Conception. Something," said Fentriss. "has made 

j| produced ni 

e those?" 

One, two. three hours later, entering the library quietly and 
then loudly, Black cried out: "What are you doing?" 

Bent over his desk, his hand moving furiously, Fentriss 
s.w: F wishing a symphony!" 

"The same one you began in the garden?" 

"No. the birds began, the birds!" 

"The birds, then ." Black edged closer to study the mad 
inscriptions. "How do you know what to do with that stuff?" 

"They did most. I've added variations!" 

"An arrogance the orniiholo gists will resent and attack 
Have you composed before?" 

:o give friends to spoil their walls, day after 
day. Which shall it be, friend, macrame or Mozart?" 

"Are you Mozart?" 

"Just his bastard son." 

"Nonsense." cried Black, pointing his lace like a blunder- 
buss at the trees as if he might blast the choir. "That tree, 
those birds, are a Rorschach test. Your subconscious is 
picking and choosing notes from pure chaos. There is 
discernible tune, no special rhythm. You had me fooled, t 
I see and hear it now, you've had a repressed desire 
since childhood to compose. And you've let a clutch of 
idiot birds grab you by the ears. Put down that pen!" 

"Nonsense, right back at you." Fentriss laughed. 
"You're jealous that after twelve layabout years, thunder- 
struck with boredom, one of us has found an occupa- 
tion. I shall follow it. Listen ar 
Sit down, you're obstructing tl 

"I'll sit." Black exclaimed, "but — " He clapped j 
his hands over his ears. 

"Fair enough," said Fentriss. "Escape fantastic 
reality while I change a few notes and finish ou 
this unexpected birth." 

Glancing up at the tree he whispered. 

knows who John Cage was' 

"Well, then, I've got it!" 

And he wrote: "Forty-seven Magpies Baked in a Pie." 
"Blackbirds, you mean, go back to John Cage." 
°Bosh!" Fentriss slabbed the phone. "Hello, Willie? Could 
you come over? Yes. a small job. Symphonic arrangement 
for a friend, or friends. What's your usual philharmonic fee? 
Eh? Good enough. Tonight!" 

Fentriss disconnected and turned to gaze at the tree 
wonders in it. 
lat next7' he murmured. 

E Forty-seven Magpies, with title shortened, premiered 

it the Glendale Chamber Symphony a month later 

i standing ovations, incredible reviews. Fentriss, out- 

;ide his skin with joy, prepared to launch himself atop 

large, small, symphonic, operatic, whatever fell on 

ears. He had hsto , -.=-c: :o :he strange choirs each 

ly for weeks, but had noted nothing, waiting to 

:e if the Magpie experiment was to be repeated. 

I When the applause rose in storms and the critics 

' hopped when they weren't skipping he knew he 

rike again before the epilepsy ceased. 

There followed: Wings, Fi-g>-: Night 
Chorus, The Ftedgiing Madrigals, ano 
Dawn Patrol, each greeted oy new 
thunderstorms of acclamation and criBCS 
angry at excellence Out forcec to ca se 

"By now," said Fentriss. "I should be 
unbearable to live with, but the birds 
caution modesty." 

"Also." said Black, seated under the 
tree, waiting lor a sprig of benison and 
the merest touch of symphonic manna, 
"shut up! If all those sly dimwit com- 
posers, who will soon be lurking in 
the bushes, cop your secret, you're a 
gone poacher." 

"Poacher! By god. yes!" Fentriss 
laughed. "Poacher." 

And damned if the first poacher 
didn't arrive! Glancing out at three in 
the morning, Fentriss witnessed a runty 
shadow stretching up, hand -he Id tape 
recorder poised, warbling and 
whistling softly at the tree. When this 
failed the half-seen poacher tried dove- 
coos and then orioles and roosters, half 
dancing in a circle. 

"Damn it to hell!" Fentriss leaped 
out with a shotgun cry: "Is that Wolf- 
gang Prouty poaching my garden? 
Out, Wolfgang! Go!" 

Dropping his recorder. Prouty 
vaulted a bush, impaled himself on 

Fentriss, cursing, picked up an 
abandoned note pad. "Nightsong" it 
read. On the tape recorder he found a 
lovely Satie-like bird-choir. 

After that more poachers arrived mid 
night to depart at dawn. Their spawn. 
Fentriss realized, would soon throttle 
his creativity and still his voice. He loi- 
tered full time in the garden now, not 
knowing what seed to give his beau- 
ties, and heavily watered the lawn to 
fetch up worms. Wearily he stood guard 
through sleepless nights nodding off 
only to find Wolfgang Prouty's evil min- 
ions astride the wall, prompting arias, 
and one night, by god, perched in the 
tree itself, humming in hopes ot sing- 

A shotgun was the final answer. 
After its first fiery roar, the garden was 
empty for a week. That is, until— 

Someone came very late indeed 
and committed mayhem. 

As quietly as possible, they cut the 
branches and sawed the limbs. 

"Oh, envious composers, dreadful 
murderers!" cried Fentriss. 

And the birds were gone. 

And the career of Amadeus Two 

"Black!" cried Fentriss. 
"Yes. dear friend?" said Black, looking 
at the bleak sky where once green was. 
"Is your car outside?" 
"When last I looked." 

wasn't like culling li 
phone poled cats. They must find and 
cage an entire Mormon tabernacle 
:oa" of soprano springtime-in-the- 
RoflWes birdseed lovers to prove one 
in the hand is worth two in the bush. 

But still they hastened from block to 
block, garden to garden, lurking and 
listening. Now their spirits soared with 
an echo ot "Hallelujah Chorus" oriole 
warbling but to sink in a drab sparrow 
twilight of despair. 

Only when they had crossed and re- 
crossed interminable mazes of asphalt 
and greens did one of them (Black] fi- 
nally light his pipe and emit a theory. 

"Did you ever think to wonder." he 
mused behind a smoke-cloui 
season of the year this is?' 

"Season of the year?" said 

"Well, coincidentally, wa 
night the tree fell and the we 

fall night of autumn?" 

Fentriss clenched a fist an 
his brow. "You mean?' 

r friends have flown tf 

"Do you doubt" it?" 
Another pained s 

It was a long year, it was a short year, 
was a year of anticipation, it was tf 
burgeoning of da 
vival of inspiration, 

Cities, but he did 
other city was! 
How stupid of rr 

:s heart Fen- 
Taie o! Two 

)w what the 

le thought, n 


have guessed or imagined, that my 
songsters were wanderers who each 

autumn fled south and each springtime 
swarmed north in a cappella choirs of 

"The waiting," he told Black, "is 
madness. The phone never stops — " 

The phone rang. He picked it up 
and addressed it like a child. "Yes. Yes. 
Of course. Soon. When? Very soon " 
And put the phone down. "You see? That 
was Philadelphia. They want another 
cantata as good as the first. At dawn 
today it was Boston. Yesterday the Vi- 
enna Philharmonic. Soon. I say. When? 
God knows. Lunacy! Where are those 

r yt-» 


"Thanks! That touch ot white w 

it what t needed!" 

George: dumped now, on his way and six months too late but 


better out of it at any cost; George like a spectroscope, that device 


of many colors at last spun from her life and here is Karen, 


bone-dry for now, dry bones in a dry season and stripped of all 


but the wire strength of self- FICTION that did not move; her phone, 

interest, spun by the enor- gy her books, that one window 

mities of her choice. Karen the KATtTE KOI A ,u,ned l0 ' ace darkness a 'l 

plasma physicist: coat across AND through the day. the brick 

her shoulders, brown wool RARRV M edge of lhe buildin 9 beyond 

winking and tickling against BAKRl W. which she could see nothing: 

her bare neck, pretty girt, lost MALZBERG she had no view at all. Like 

girl now, snow in her hair like * 

a line decoration as she PAINTING 

crossed the uneven landscape BY 

of the parking lot. as she put POEN L>E 

:r ungloved fingers to fti 
metal handle of the glas 
doors, as she entered the scents and 
silences of the building, then her office, 
sideways to the lab. Her smell here and 
George's too like an animal, like the 
scent of an empty den: once they had 
screwed themselves tight against the 
model of the particle accelerator and 
committed heavy thunder, lost vibrations 
and their odor still enveloping this place 

the application of thought. The beige 

the galaxies before time, like 
the blind, bare animals ol her 
breasts sinking underneath 
his grunts. 

In the window then Karen's 
face: skin on glass on brick. 
Forty-two years in that face, revolving 
suns and the motion of planets, the thin 
imponderable distances between the 
stars and the holes of the quasars, oh 
the idiot dance of knowledge gained, 

. Vou c 

i do a 

forty-two years, she supposed, and she 

had done if not all then much of it in this 
office, humped George, plotted coeffi- 
cients: brick on brick on glass on stone. 
On bone. On the bones of her lost face, 
in of her workstation, the swivel chair each year passing showing the world 

that elision of gathered beauty and 
strength: and cunning: and quietude 
and solitude and force. Karen's pres- 
sure building; like the oceans between 
the stars, the sea-lapping of space that 
forces further molion, (he stars locked 
like slones in that sea: the pulsing tide 
of the universe. Certainties and uncer- 
tainties, theory and proof Her face in 
the window looking inward and out. 
both and neither, eyes open and clos- 
ing ihen upon 

before her in the glass, behind her 

No more hallucination than the last 
time, no sundering of self in the 
George-cast refraction of this room, no, 
there were the faces again, her own 
and twice and a third time: she had not 
moved, three faces and then six, 
twelve of Karen, the closure of expo- 
nential drift as the faces bunched like 
flowers, skin and eyes in bouquet to 
stare at her. Blink. Close and open the 
eyes, brown eyes in their etched net- 
ling, slow deliberate open and 
close: now you see them, now 
you see them still. Faces all 
over the glass, emergent, 
hovering like succubi and 
dreams. She blinked her eyes 
is which 

part bul not 
but sightles 
but reflections m 
walls and the c 

ne trick not of sight 
here were nothing 
Empty glass, brick 
noonlime dark of 
promised snow for this conglomeration 
of Karens, the bright and the dull, the 
nascent and the aged, the air color 
without substance, all Karens now: the 
seven ages ot Karen pinned against 
substanceless color, the frantic depar- 
ture of those galaxies and formations, 
exeunt in the aftermath of that terminal, 
original explosion and Karen saw them 
again, there they were 
- etheyw 

replicated change circumstance. Observation Is 
' ' i factored into the 
If chronology is shattered 
is encountered. 

n't understand, she said. I'm a 
a physicist, I study conse- 
!, not origin. I don't know- 
chronology is shattered, the 
face said, then causality is no longer a 
concern, becomes merely another con- 
sequence. Develop your premise prop- 
disaster far beyond a worthless faith- 
you knew from the be- 

smiling at h 
smiling. The rr 

'., all of them 
jhi'ario i- ; . Karens, far too 
it now, hair and eyes, 
; and she did not move. 
le blink or rub her eyes 
or play the games of cognition to prove 
the lie of dreaming: faces and faces, 
the wonderful multiplicity of self, their 
mouths in motion but not in unison as 

s. You w 

had g 
and th 

rolled o 

e gala) 


only the observer, you were the moving 
particle, don't you understand that now? 
There are disasters of time and space 
and they are wholly interchangeable. 

No, she said, go away. Get out of 
my window. Get out of my office. 

Cm not an observer, the face said, 

you're the observer. I'm the particle in 

remission at the heart of the neutron 

star whose reaction is your 

ejaculation, forced 

then the room ws 

again, workstation 

phone, machinery and iron 

swivel chair and the doorway through 

which she had entered, rectangular 

and stolid, tilled with nothing but the 

endless drift of all the things she had 

Ache in Karen's neck; she had been 
working all day, now with George and 
his grunts evicted she worked every 
day. she did not accept or need the 
idea of time to herself. Time to herself 
was the custodian of all loss; she was 
alone here anyway, wasn't she? and 
where else would she prefer to be? The 
sound from the daytime corridor of 
movement: people, papers and bod- 
ies, the soundless drift ot separation, 
particles of thought. Somewhere at the 
heart of Heisenberg's uncertainty prin- 
ciple dwelt the explosion and reforma- 
tion of the galaxies and she sought this 
with the same drab insistence with 
which George had hustled himself to a 
kind of consummation: big bang works 
two ways, sonny boy. Looking up at the 
window again and there were the 
faces, the anti-, the proto-Karens. her 







George of your circum- 

Oh my, Karen said, oh 
my you're a very poor meta- 
physicist and did not know 
if she was saying this to 
the tace or herself, mouth 
say more 

their smiles had bloomed, 

moved their lips to whisper in confi- 
dence of the thunder amongst the suns 
she strained to hear: to somehow merge 
with them, these Karens who were try- 
ing to tell her something: to grow wiser 
with proximity: to turn as quickly as one 
rounds on a burglar, on a lying, prevari- 
cating lover, !o turn in that wheeling 
confrontation that would at last lock cir- 
cumstance: lo see nothing behind her 
but her office, papers, devices, ma- 
chines; to turn again, herself like clock- 
work to watch them frowning in the 
glass and without volition her fingers 
moved to her own pretty, lost, riven 
face and touched it: her muscles knew 
that frown, her bones and skin mimick- 
ing in memory. Follow the leader. One 
of the faces in the glass seemed to 
grow larger without moving, to confront 
her not as her own aspect, eyes in a 
mirror but in a harsh and open fashion 

Heisenberg is incomplete, the face 
said. Observation does not of itself 

len the 
re time, arranged 
] syllables of her 
name. She nearly fell from her swivel- 
less chair, stripped of balance and the 
necessity of the moment by the faces 
as they aligned and then diminished, 
faded from perspective and view. She 
picked up the phone and sard no and 
put it down, two tries to replace it. the 
word gigantic in its constriction. No. 
No. They had been all around her. those 
faces, but the one had been the speaker 
for them all. Why me though? Why 
them? Why now? Sitting there in the un- 
giving curve of plastic and metal she 
fell the active, darting movement of the 
atoms of self, each of them in direct, 
pendant counter react ion to profound 
and critical musings on the other side of 
the galaxies, before the origin of time. 

Later: in the Georgeless apartment 
with the four windows and single mirror 
and the uneven stains of his advent 
planted here and there upon the mat- 
tress she tried to discover the meaning 
of the (aces, the other, drifting, whis- 
pering Karens but found nothing: no 
Karens: no whisperings, no one but 
herself alone beside windows matte 

with winter light and here the view im- 
proved but her mood did not, infused 
with the glare of galaxies and the iron 
law of Heisenberg, adrift withou.1 pros- 
pect of redemption. Redemption? is 
that what had chased her into Boolean 
algebra and then graduate physics 
years ago, to somehow by becoming a 
physicist atone for that glimpse of lost 
selves which she had last retrieved? 
No. No. Abandoned lover's gloom, the 
panic of the impermanently devastated. 
the not-entirely broken. I don't need 
this, she said aloud, I don't want this 
and that if nothing else seemed true: 
theories were to be unified, order culled 

certainties grasped only until their 
quarks and demons could be excised 
and examined; there was no need for 
metaphysics, no need for the search of 
that point where faith, prayer, i 
and the dark collided, 
of this unless as imposed sense but 
still, this certainty of being watched, of 
being seen from everywhere, one mon- 
ster nexus shared by thousands ol ob- 
server-Karens, compound gaze drifting 
toward that locus of self and she the re- 

be considered as a container, could be 
image and scatterings both? 

Karen in a quandary; linked to nei- 
ther history nor circumstance, a body 
alone in a room; observed and unob- 
served and now she picks up the tele- 
phone, that instrument of demonology 
and summons from all the power of her 

George, calls to him across the singing 
wire and suspension of space and at 
last his voice can be heard stammering 
through the thickets of deceit which 
had been their portion, lost and lonely 
and deceived and: They're watching 
us. George, she says with a doomed 
and gleeful certainty, they really are 
and "Karen?" that separated voice, 

strange, what do you want?" and she 
stared through the holes in the mouth- 
piece like the empty, pitted shell of the 
which she is fast de- 
scending, blind pilot, shielded capsule 
like a pill down a hungry throat and: 
They're watching us, George, all of us 
are being watched by the selves we 
night hi 

d of tf 



s the 

image entire does it then follow : 
image entire, that Karen herself could' 

power of disassociation, 

ation. Do you see? she says and it all 

seems so clear, to her at least how 

clear it seems. Lady physicist, lady of 

lightning and collision and the empty 
cold spite of the diminished heavens, 
imploding loward that point of shrink- 
age in the neutron siar. Gather round, 
George, gather round, we are watching 
you, all of us are watching you. As you 
humped so frantic and juiceless in the 

tumble haplessly toward final implo- 
sion. In their gathering so we are driven 
apart; as they bind lo one another, so 
George, we explode. We explode. 
George. Karen says and in the expen- 
diture of this final insighl laughs and 
laughs, laughs at her bone- dead lover 
over the wire of their connection while 
outside, at the farthest spaces of the 
further stars those calamitous Karens 
of all lost and simple nights patiently 
continue to observe. They are nol 
frightened of changing the outcome. 
They know that they have been fac- 
tored in. She could not, she could not 
come and finally that heaving and con- 
sequential fall: then'she expelled him 
like a burnt and deadened star; falling 
and falling. Like priests on the moun- 
tains, the Karens gather and whisper 
over her new dreams, her old dreams, 
in the falling and fallen light, in the light 
that spills and tumbles, falls forever 
down the emptied panes of glass into 
the core of the irretrievable stars. DQ 

Some Like It Gold 

to exploit, who cared? 
The chronological protection Isna'.ics 
would be better off taking care of the 

want us into production within three 
weeks. We've got eighty million already 
invested in this. Sally, you can crank 
publicity up to full gain We're going to 
succeed where all the others have 
failed. We're going to put the first vi- 
able Marilyn on the wire. She may be a 
wreck, but she wants to be here. Nol 
like Paramount's version." 

"That's where we're smart," Cryer 
said. "We take into account the psy- 
chological factors." 

I couldn't stand much more After 
the meeting I rode down to the lobby 
and checked out of the building. As I 
approached the front doors I could see 
a crowd of people had gathered out- 
' e bright sunlight. Faces slick 



400 s 

couldn't adjust. 
or outlasted fheir momentary celebrity, 
or turned out not to be as interesting to 
the present as their sponsors had imag- 
ined. A lot of money had been squan- 
dered on bad risks. Who really wanted 
to listen to new compositions by Gersh- 
win? How was Shakespeare even 
going to understand the twenty-first 
century, lei atone wrile VR scripls lhat 
anybody would want to experience? 

I sneaked out the side door and 
caught the metro down at the corner. 
Rode the train through Hollywood and 
up to my arcology. 

In the newsstand I uploaded the lat- 
' my spex. then slopped 
room to get my shoes 

□ the 

id carried picket signs. "End 
Time Exploitation." "Information, not 
People." "Hands off the Past," 

Not one gram of evidence existed 
that a change in a past moment-universe 
had ever affected our own time. They 
' ro sides of a coin. 

smoked the Is 
checked the n 
than a pistol. V 


Of c 

e that o 

hs. Jesus, still hotter 
s the lead on Variety. 
He smiled, new teeth, clean shaven, 
homely little Jew, but even through the 
nolo he projected a lethal charisma. 
That one was making Universal rich. 
Who would have thought that a reli- 
gious mystic with an Aramaic accent 
would- become such a talk- show shark. 

image the number one tele- 
dream date? "Jesus' Laying 
on ol Hands is the most spiritual expe- 
rience I've ever had over fiberoptic 
VR," gushed worldwide recording 
megastar Daphne Overdone. 

On Hollywood Grapevine, gossip 
maven Hedley O'Connor reported 
Elisenbrunnen GMBH, which owned 
DAA, was unhappy with third-quarter 
earnings. If Scoville went down, the 
new boss would pull the plug on all his 
projects. My contractual responsibilities 
would then, as they say. be at an end. 

"What a mess you made of these 
shoes, Herr Gruber," the valet muttered 
in German. I switched off my spex and 
watched him finish. The arco hired a lot 
ot indigenls. It was cheap, and good PR, 
but Ihe valet was my personal reclama- 
tion project. His unruly head of hair 
danced as he buffed my shoes to a high 
luster. He looked up at me. "How is thai?" 

"Looks fine." I fished out a twenty- 
dollar piece. He watched me with his 
watery, sad, intelligent eyes. His brown 

g gray- 

jsta.che. like 

"Only for work. For a while I r 
look like you, Albert." 

I gave him Ihe twenty and v\ 
to my room.OQ 

Once More, Legato 

angels that once sang me to my rest?" 
He Ihrew down maps and weather 
charts ol Mexico. Peru, Guatemala, 
and the Argentines. 

"How far south? Do I scour Buenos 
Aires or Rio, Mazallan or Cuernavaca? 
And then? Wander about with a tin ear, 
standing under trees waiting for blnJ- 
drops like a spotted owl? Will the Ar 
gentine critics trot by scoffing to soo 
me leaning on trees, eyes shut, wa :■•■; 
for the quasi-melody. the lost chord' I'd 

journey, my search, otherwise pandfl- 
moniums ol laughter. But in what city, 
under what kind of tree would I wander 
to stand? A tree like mine? Do they 
seek the same roosts? Or will anything 
do in Ecuador or Peru? God, I could 
waste months guessing and come 
back with birdseed in my hair and bird 
bombs on my lapels. What to do, 
Black, speak'." 

"Well, for one thing," Black 
stuffed and lit his pipe and ex- 
haled his aromatic concepts, 
"you might clear off this stump 
and plant a new tree." 

They had been circling the 
stump and kicking it for inspi- 
ration. Fentriss froze with one 
toot raised. "Say that again?'." 

"Good grief, you genius! 

The stump was pulled and the new tree 

"Don't show me the bill," Fentriss 

"Pay it. 

told h 

■ they could find. 
of the same family as the one dead 
and gone, was planted. 

"Whaf if it dies before my choir re- 
turns?" said Fentriss. 

"What if it lives," said Black, "and 
your choir goes elsewhere?" 

The tree, planted, seemed in no im- 
"ed ate need to die. Neither did it look 
patir.u ar y . tal and ready to welcome 
small singers from some far southern 

Mearwhi e the sky, like the tree, was 
empty -Don't they know I'm waiting/?" 
said hentnss. 

"Not unless," offered Black, "you 
majored in crossconlinenlal telepathy." 

"I've checked with Audubon. They say 
that while the swallows do come back 
to Capistrano on a special day. give or 
take a white lie, other migrating species 
are often one or two weeks late." 


"Rather not. Hugs, maybe." 
Fentriss hugged him, wildly. 


"Always was." 

"Let's get a shovel and spade." 

"You get. I'll watch." 

Fentriss ran back a minute later 
with a spade and pickax. "Sure you 
won't join me?" 

Black sucked his pipe, blew smoke. 

"How much would a tu\\-grown tree 

"Too much." 

"Yes, but if it were here and the 
birds did return?" 

Black let out more smoke. "Might be 
worth it. Opus Number Two: In the 
Beginning by Charles Fentriss, stuff 
like that" 

"In the Beginning, or maybe The 

"One of those." 

"Or," Fentriss struck the stump with 
the pickax. "Rebirth" He struck again. 
"Ode to Joy." Another strike. "Spring 
Harvest." Another. "Let the Heavens 
Resound. How's that, Black?" 

"I prefer the other," said Black. 






a ghost of song. 

And awoke at dawn with tear-filled 
eyes, having dreamed that the birds 
had returned but knew, in waking, it 
was only a dream. And yet. . . ? 

Hark, someone might have said in 
an old novel. Listl as in an old play. 

Eyes shut, he fine-tuned his ears . . . 

looked fatter, as if it had taken on invisi- 
ble ballasts in the night. There were 
stirrings there, not of simple breeze or 
probing winds, but something in the 
very leaves that knitted and purled 
them in rhythms. He dared not fook but 
lay back down to ache his senses and 
try to know 

A single chirp hovered in the window. 

He waited. 


Goon, he thought. 

Another chirp. 

Don't breathe, he thought, don't let 
them know you're listening. 

sound, then a fifth note, 
nen a sixth and a seventh. 

My God, he thought, is 
nis a substitute orchestra, 
i replacement choir come 
3 scare off my loves? 

Another live notes. 

) prayet 

"If I were you," said Black, "I would 
plunge into an intense love affair to dis- 
tract you while you waif." 

"I am fresh out of love affairs." 

"Well, then," said Black, "suffer." 

The hours passed slower than the 
minutes, fhe days passed slower than 
the hours, the weeks passed slower 
than the days. Black called, "No birds?" 

"No birds." 

"Pity. 1 can't stand watching you lose 
weight." And Black disconnected. 

On a final night, when Fentriss had 
almost yanked the phone out of the 
wall, fearful of another call from the 
Boston Symphony, he leaned an ax 
against the trunk of the new tree and 
addressed it and the empty sky. 

"Last chance," he said. "If the dawn 
patrol doesn't show by 7:00 a.m., it's 
quits." And he touched ax-blade 
against the tree-bole, took two shots of 
vodka so swiftly that the spirits squirted 
out both eyes, and went to bed. 

! during the night to 

his window, s 

they're only tuning upl 

Another twelve notes, 
of no special timbre or pace, 

plode like a lunatic con- 
ductor and fire the bunch- 
It happened. 
Note after note, line 
fluid melody following spring 
lelody, the whole choir ex- 
haled to blossom the tree with joyous 
proclamations of return and welcome 
in chorus. 

And as they sang, Fentriss snuck 
his hand to find pad and pen to hide 
under the covers so that its scratching 
mighf nof disturb the choir that soared 
and dipped to soar again, firing the 
bright air that flowed from t' * 

Ireshet n 

alight ai 

t a soft b 

ing the I 

with not 

hand to remember. 

The phone rang. He picked it up 
swiftly to hear Black ask if the waif ing 
was over. Without speaking, he held 
the receiver in the window. 

"I'll be damned," said Black's voice. 

"No anointed," whispered the com- 
poser, scribbling Cantata Number Two. 
Laughing, he called softly to the sky. 

"Please. More slowly. Legato not ag- 

And the tree and the creatures 
within the tree obeyed. 
Agitato ceased. 
Legato prevailed. DO 


is more rewarding 
than creating an 

awareness in 
of life's 



■- c 3 -.-' '-^ V^c 5 V^t" 

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witnessing his 
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in it / 



Article by Dcrva Sobel 

Photographs by David Michael Kennedy 

Flying saucers made their first official appearance in the summer 
of 1947. On June 25, Kenneth Arnold, a Boise, Idaho, rescue pilol 
working for the U.S. Fores! Service, flew over the Cascade Moun- 
tains of Washington State, searching for a missing plane. He spot- 
ted nine disc -shaped craft, which he guessed to be moving at a 
speed of 1,200 miles an hour and at an alfitude of 10.000 feel. 
When Arnold described fheir motion as resembling "a saucer skip- 
ping over water." a newspaper headline dubbed them "flying 
saucers." Almost instantly, believable witnesses from other states 
and several foreign countries reported similar sightings— enliven- 
ing wire- sen/ice dispatches tor days. 

Within two weeks, on July 8, 1947, the United States Army an- 
nounced that it had recovered a flying saucer from the New Mexican 
desert, near a town called Roswell. The morning after, the Army cor- 
The "saucer" had been a misidentified weather balloon. 

Thus began the infamous "Roswell Incident," the mother of all UFO 
scenarios. At first, il seemed to be a bursl of excitement over noth- 
ing— a story of "Man Biles Dog" that quickly laded into "Dog Bites 
Man." But over decades, the event at Roswell has been repeatedly 
remembered, reevaluated, and retold, so that it now boasls seminal 
importance in the annals of contacts with extraterrestrial civilizations. 

According lo several residents of Roswell who claim to be eye- 
it one alien crafl crashed there that summer of 

1947. However, they say. military and government 
parlies — including the Air Force, the FBI. and 
the While House— intentionally covered up the 
lacts. As a former employee of the local funeral 

3, the 

Welcome te 
Bos well: 
east of 
the town 

crew were autopsied at the Roswell Army Air 
Field Hospilal immediately aftei the crash. Then 
their remains were Mown lo Dayton, Ohio, to the 
sile of what is now Wright-Patterson Air Force 
Base, where they were frozen for future study. 

Rumors circulated that one of the creatures 
had even survived the accident. It lived lor over 
a year, sequestered and cared lor in a specially 
built top-secrel facility, before succumbing to an 
Earth-acquired infection. 

Now. nearly half a century after the precipitat- 
ing event, New Mexico Congressman Stephen 

members. The film celebrates the twin themes of 
the Roswell Incident— the arrival of extraterres- 
trial visitors and the paranoia regarding govern- 
ment conspiracy. With documentary verisimilitude. 
Roswell depicts UFOs as the vehicles thai lerry 
aliens to Earth, and the governments of the world 
as the powers that conceal the alien presence. 

At the opposite extreme, the U.S. Air Force has 
completed its own internal review of the events 
and allegations. Its "Report on Roswell," which 
was released in September 1994, identities the 
so-called "weather balloon" as part of a once- 
top-secret experimental program, "Project 
Mogul," for monitoring Russian nuclear bomb 
tests. A page-one story in the New York Times oi 
September 18, '994, heralded this explanation 
as the long- awaited denouement of the Roswell 

and Walter 
Haut, In- 
UFO Mu- 
seum presi- 
(right) In 
front of 
painting by 

H. Schiff has asked the General Accounting Of- 
fice (GAO), which is the investigative arm of 
Congress, to investigate the incident. 

Did the military act appropriately at the 
time — or did it move to suppress informaiion. 
spread lies, and silence the residents of Roswell. 
some of whom claim they received death threats 



in July 1947? 

GAO spokesman Cleve Corlett insists his 
agency is no! investigating Roswell, as many 
students of the case contend. "We don't talk 
about our work till it's linished," Corletl said. Bui 
whatever the truth, thanks to publicity from Schiff 
and others, Roswell has spawned interesl from 
many quarters indeed. 

For example, a recenl Showtime movie called 
Roswell. based on the book UFO Crash at 
Roswell. paints a vivid piclure of charred aliens 
on operating tables, amid a Watergate-style 
cover-up masterminded by four- and five-star 
generals, scientists, super-spies, and Cabinet 

Incident, Project Mogul, the Air Force and 
Times agreed, dismissed the alien-spaceship tale 
as a modern myth. Proponents of the alleged 
saucer orastl and subsequent cover-up, however, 
remain unconvinced by the Air Force account. 

How good is the evidence on each side ol 
the Roswell Incident? What really happened 
there? And if all that landed was a glorified 
weather balloon, why won't the legend die? 

I came to this story prejudiced, as alt jour- 
nalists are, with my own preconceived no- 
tions. As the co-author of a book about fhe 
scientific search for extraterrestrial intelli- 
gence (SETI) through radio astronomy. I 
firmly believe that other civilizations share our 
galaxy, and may even be trying to contact us. 
But I do not think that flying saucers are landing 
here. The alien presence would have to be ubiq- 
uitous to explain all the claims ol contact I have 
heard. Nevertheless, the Roswell Incident in- 
trigued me because it was born practically at 

happen once— rise whole cloth out of 
one Big Bang— why not admit the ar- 
rival on Earth ol a lone flying saucer? 

Part of me was wide open to fhat 
possibility when I started exhuming the 
incident's history. I read six books 
about it, along with miscellaneous re- 
ports on Roswell published by the Mu- 
tual UFO Network (an international 
contingent of UFOIogists). I read the 
Air Force report, of course, with all its 
supporting documentation, as well as 
numerous magazine and newspaper 
articles, plus back issues of newslet- 
ters devoted both to promulgating and 
debunking UFO sightings. I also 
viewed several hours of videotapes on 
the Roswell Incident, reviewed se- 
lected Internet files, and interviewed a 
dozen individuals on the telephone. 
Then I went to Roswell lo meet some of 
the witnesses faco to 'ace ano 'o 3ee 
the place where irn sajcer is sanj 'o 

To begin at the beginning, 
the Roswell of 1947 was a 
small town in a big desen 
surrounded by aces of unde- 
veloped land and sheep 
ranches stretching over the 
mostly flat terrain as far as the 
eye could see. At the south 
end of the business district 
stood the Roswell Army Air 
Field, home base for the fight- 
ing 509th — the world's only 
combat unit trained to handle 

About 100 miles west of Roswell, at 

Alamogordo, the first atomic bomb ex- 
plosion had shot up its mushroom 
cloud just two years prior lo the 
Roswell Incident. And although se- 
crecy shrouded the activities at nearby 
White Sands Proving Ground, Roswell 
residents were aware that captured 
German V-2 rockets routinely pene- 
trated the arid sky. What's more, Robert 
H. Goddard, the father of American 
rocketry, had moved to Roswell from 
Massachusetts, and launched 56 flight 
tests there from 1930 until shortly be- 
fore his death in 1943. You could say 
that Roswell stood closer to oufer 
space than any other town in the world. 
The stories of flying discs that 
spread across the country in the sum- 
mer of 1947 fell on receptive ears in 
New Mexico. Sheep rancher W. W. 
("Mac") Brazel overheard the talk in a 
Corona bar on Saturday night, July 5. 
According to his own later account in 
the local press, he wondered if the 

be part of some such flying disc. He 
hoped it was. A prize ol $3,000 had been 
promised by a national news outfit to 
anybody who recovered one. Brazel 
drove some of the shiny litter into Ros- 
well and showed it to the county sheriff, 
who showed it to the Army base's intel- 
ligence officer, who retrieved the rest of 
the pieces back at the ranch. 

Tbat Army intelligence officer, Major 
Jesse Marcel, had never seen anything 
quite like the debris that lay in scat- 
tered scraps and tatters over an area 
some 200 yards wide. Though plentiful, 
it was so lightweight that Marcel and a 
helper could pick it all up and load it in 
the backs ot their cars. Brazel, the 
rancher, estimated in a newspaper in- 
terview that the whole lot couldn't have 
weighed much more than five pounds. 
Although Marcel's description of what 
he had found did not appear in any 
press reports published at the time, he 
later recalled that the material bore no 
" " e had 







clear from the arficle who termed the 
debris a flying saucer. The words do 
not appear in quotes, and they are not 
attributed to either Marcel or to the 
base commander, Colonel William H. 
Blanchard. They are used matter-of- 
factly. as though such things would be 
well known to readers of the Record— 
and indeed they were. 

"After the intelligence office here 
had inspected the instrument," the arti- 
cle went on to say. "it was flown to 
'higher headquarters.'" Indeed, Marcel 
took the debris on a plane to Fort 
Worth, where General Roger M. Ramey 
identified it fo Marcel and the press as 
the remains of a downed weather bal- 
loon carrying a radar target. The next 
day, in an even larger headline than it 
had used to announce the find, the 
Record reported, "Gen. Ramey Emp- 
ties Roswell Saucer." 

The Army's announcement of the 
"weather balloon" explanation ended 
the flying saucer excitement. All men- 
tion of the craft dropped from the news- 
papers, from military records. 
from the national conscious- 
ness, and even from the 
talk of the town in Roswell. 
Thirty years passed with 

ground d 


n the 

"I saw . . . small bits of metal," Mar- 
cel told a reporter years after the fact, 
"but mostly we found some material 
that's hard to describe." Some ol it was 
porous, he remembered. He also men- 
tioned "stuff that looked very much like 
parchment," as well as long, slender 
solid members — like square sticks, the 
largest of which was between three 
and four feet long. These pieces re- 
sembled wood, felt as light as balsa. 
and carried undecipherable markings 
that Marcel called "hieroglyphics." 

On Tuesday, July 8, 1947. a press 
release announcing Marcel's catch was 
distributed to the local newspapers 
and radio stations by Walter G. Haut, 
then-public relations officer at the 
base. The Roswell Daily Record spread 
the word under a banner headline: 
"RAAF Captures Flying Saucer on 
Ranch in Roswell Region." 

The story began, "The intelligence 
office of the 5091h Bombardment group 
at Roswell Army Air Field announced at 
noon today that the field has come into 
possession of a flying saucer." It is not 

n of tr 
Roswell Incident. 

Then, Stanton T. Fried- 
man of Fredericton, New 
Brunswick, in Canada, re- 
discovered Roswell. Fried- 
man had been working as 
a nuclear physicist (al- 
though he does not hold a 
doctoral degree in that dis- 
i) for General Electric, Westing- 

. He 

devoted his spare time to reading 
widely about flying saucers, including 
the reports of Project Bluebook— the 
Air Force's official investigation, from 
1952 to 1969. into UFO sightings. 

"In the 1970s, when the bottom fell 
out of the nuclear physics business," 
Friedman told me in a telephone inter- 
view. "I went full time as a lecturer." 

Friedman has delivered his lecture, 
"Flying Saucers ARE Real!," at some 
600 college campuses and to many 
professional meetings. Although Fried- 
man never saw a flying saucer himself, 
his work made him a lightning rod for 
people with their own UFO stories to 
tell. They would seek him out after his 
talks and share bits of information. 
Over the past 17 years, by following 
leads from such sources, Friedman has 
become the self-styled impresario of 
the Roswell Incident. He has ferreted 


and he believes that the c 

s today at the high- 
est levels of secrecy within the federal 
government, although his evidence for 
this claim Is hotly contested. 

Friedman received his first important 
Roswell tip in 1978 while appearing on 
a news program in Baton Rouge. The 
station manager mentioned thai his 
ham radio buddy — a fellow named 
Jesse Marcel— had once handled the 
wreckage of a flying saucer. 

Intrigued, Friedman called Marcel 
the very next day. The former major 
had retired from the Army and was 
working as a television repairman in 
Houma. Louisiana. Friedman ascribes 
great weight to that initial 
Writing about thi 
scribing himself in the third person, hi 
gauged its import as follows: 

"Marcel described the material ti 
Friedman over the phone, giving tin 
veteran UFO investigator the first indi 

sibly turn out to be the most 
discovery of the millennium." 

Friedman used his con- 
tacts to set up an interview for 
Marcel with the National En- 
quirer. In that 1979 Interview, 
32 years after the original dis- 
covery, Marcel said of the de- 
bris, "I'd .never seen anything 
like that. I didn't know what 
we were picking up. I still be- 
lieve it was nothing that came 
from Earth. It came to Earth 
but not from Earth." 

Marcel continued to ex- 
press puzzlement about the 
Roswell debris till his dying 
jr called 


man to go on— In his preliminary recon- 
struction of the events, the 1947 craft 

sheep ranch near Roswell, then contin- 
ued flying in a northwesterly direction 

tributed these insights to the first vol- 
ume in the Roswell literature— The 
Roswell Incident (Grosset & Dunlap), 
By Charles Berlitz and William Moore. 

With the book's publication in 1980, 
the Roswell Incident took on new pro- 
portions. First it spread Irom the debris 
field on the sheep ranch to a site far 
away where Friedman thought the rest 
of the saucer must have landed. He 
put this "crash site" at Corona, about 
90 miles northwest of Roswell. Since 
Brazel's ranch sprawled over desert 
that lay beLween the two towns, the 
"Roswell Incident" might just as well be 
called "The Crash at Corona." Indeed, 
Friedman later took this title for his own 
book. Crash at Corona, co-authored 
with Don Berliner and published by 
Paragon House in 1992. Friedman 

program called Unsolved Mysteries. 
Right after Ihe show, Anderson phoned 
the network's toll-free number from his 
home in Missouri. He said he remem- 
bered coming upon the very craft that 
Friedman had mentii 
corpses ejected onto the sand, t 
o.ii rock nunting wiin his family. 

"We headed straight toward it," An- 
derson later told Friedman in person. 
"There was a big gouge mark where it 

tore up a lot of the sagebrush ar 
were fires smoldering her< 
"That's when my brother si 
goddamn spaceship! Them's Martians!'" 
Anderson's vivid memories of the 
hot, humid morning are stunning in 
their detail. Likewise his estimates of 
the distances between objects on the 
ground, and his total recall of the dia- 
logue that engaged his father, his 
brother, his Uncle Ted, and his Cousin 
Victor. In all, Anderson's account, 







is my belief tc 
point. And I 
though I 

UFO ir 

e breaking 

Ing s 

And ti 


mentioned any bodies lying in or near 
what he had found. Nor did the original 
discoverer of the debris, Mac Brazel, 

Friedman added that part — the cor- 
pus delicti. The crashed saucer and its 
alien crew were the gifts of Vern and 
Jean Maltais, who attended a Friedman 
lecture, and stayed late to tell him a fly- 
ing saucer story related by their late 
friend, Grady ("Barney") Barnett. Bar- 

didn't stop at Corona, however, but 
continued westward, straight across 
central New Mexico for another 150 
miles — to a second crashed saucer 
site on the Plains of San Augustin. 
Here, just past Socorro, was where 
Friedman figured Barney Barnett's craft 
must have touched down. 

Struggling to un 
nection between th 

two sites, Fried- 

man pondered var 
There might have be 

en several craft in 

ild h 

9 collid 

e had s> 

ir Socorro. New Mexico, where he 
worked in the 1940s as a government 
engineer. The Maltais couple couldn't 
remember what year the crash might 
have taken place, and Barney was 
long dead, so there was no way lo find 
out. But they assured Friedman that 
Barney was much too upstanding a citi- 
zen to have fabricated such a tale — 
complete with sunlight glinting off a 
great, metallic disc, some 25 or 30 feet 
in diameter. That was enough for Fried- 

bodies in a wide swath. Or one craft 
could have crashed at Ro swell/Corona, 
while another got shot down over the 
Plains of San Augustin by military fire from 
the White Sands Missile Range. There 
seemed to be enough room in the desert 
for almost anything to have occurred. 

Friedman eventually found a live 
eyewitness who could corroborate his 
second site on the Plains of San Au- 
gustin. This was Gerald F. Anderson, a 
mere boy of five in 1947, who saw 
Friedman on a 1990 national television 

Friedman, ever on the 
case, continued to look for 
another eyewitness to 
back up Anderson's out- 
standing memory. He 
never found one. Thus, An- 
derson stands alone 
against the attacks from 
other Roswell researchers, all of whom 
seek to discredit his testimony. 

For example, Kevin D. Randle and 
Donald R. Schmitt, authors of two 
books published by Avon — UFO Crash 
at Roswell and its sequel. The Truth 
about the UFO Crash a! Roswell (in 
whi'ch the date of the crucial crash is 
corrected from July 2 to July 4|— de- 
nounce Anderson's story. They sum- 
moned a forensic scientist lo examine 
the 1947 diary purportedly kept by An- 
derson's Uncle Ted. This document, 
which supported Gerald Anderson's 
oral history, was duly found lo be writ- 
ten on bona fide 1947-vintage paper. 

1 1974. 

'Clearly this was not a document 
written by Anderson's Uncle Ted," Ran- 
dle and Schmitt conclude triumphantly 
in their new book. "Ted Anderson could 
not be reached for comment. He had 
died several years prior to 1974." 

This is a recurrent theme in Roswell 
research— the unfortunate disappear- 
due to nat- 

ural attrition. As the years go by, those 
who devote themselves to seeking the 
truth about Roswell face ever greater 
challenges irom fading memories and 
failing hearts. 

The Randle-Schmitt duo took on the 
Roswel! Incident in 1988, thinking they 
could expose it as a hoax, or at least a 
harmless flap over something that never 
happened. Now. after six years and 25 
trips to the town, Ihey believe the 
claims that first struck them as extraor- 
dinary. As Randle told me early in our 
talks, "No mundane explanation fits. 

"I'd be extremely disappointed if it 
turned oul to be terrestrial," Randle 
later said of the Roswell debris, "but I'd 
accept definitive proof." Since no one 
saved any of the original debris— at 
least so far as anyone knows— Randle 
is unlikely to encounter enough evi- 
dence to make him deviate from his 
currert career path. 

A resident of Cedar Rapids. Iowa, 
Randle is a former Army helicopter 
pilot who flew over Vietnam. He has 
demonstraied a flair for fiction by writ- 
ing some 70 novels (mostly science- 
fiction and men's adventure) in addition 
to his two Roswell texts and consulta- 
tion on the screenplay for Showtime's 
Roswell movie. Randle looked briefly 
into cattle mutilalions before finding his 
metier in Roswell. Now he also hosts a 
weekly two-hour radio program oul of 
El Paso, "The Randle Report," which 
covers the full gamut of paranormal 
subjects from past lives regression to 
the Bermuda Triangle. 

When Randle and I met for lunch in 
Roswell. he chose the restaurant. And 
when we paid our separate bills at the 
cash register, he presented a special 
card that procured him free food from 
the establishment, in any amount, at any 
time. This hospitality, like his free room 
at the motel he recommended to me, is 
the way the townspeople thank him for 
his efforts on their behalf. Stanton Fried- 
man may have pul Roswell on the map, 
but Kevin Randle put it in the movies. 

Randle^ co-author, Don Schmitt of 
Hubertus, Wisconsin, once served as 
an assistant lo the late J. Allen Hynek, 
founder of the Center for UFO Studies 
in Chicago (the first UFO group dedi- 
cated to scientific analysis of the phe- 
nomenon) Schmitt, who describes 
himself as a medical illustrator, actually 
works as a letter carrier for the U.S. 
Postal Service in Milwaukee, a position 
he has held since 1974. (This came as 
a surprise to many of his fellow UFO re- 
searchers, who simply were nol aware 
of his "day job.") 

Like Friedman, neither Randle nor 
Sc-in-iitt lias ever seen a UFO. 

Having dismissed Gerald Anderson 

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as "a hoax," Randle and Schmitt origi- 
nally pul their faith in the eyewitness 
testimony of their own Jim Ragsdale of 
Carlsbad, whom Ihey found around 
Roswell on one of their research trips. 
Raqic.-ilo sa'd he was camping north 
of Roswell on (he night of July 2. 1947 
with a female companion, Trudy True- 
love, when a bright object roared 
overhead and hit the ground. The cou- 
ple hunted down the wreck that night 
and identified it in a flashlight's dim 
beam as a flying saucer, with alien 
corpses nearby. They returned the next 

ing. Ragsc 

, but 

couldn't get close because the 

was crawling with military police who 
had cordoned off the area. 

This scenario, presented early in 
The Truth about the UFO Crash at 
Roswell, includes an asterisk next lo 
Trudy Truelove's name. I glanced at the 
bottom of the page, expecting to find 
the usual disclaimer about aliases 
made up lo protect the identity of ac- 
tual individuals. Instead, I read: 

'The story told by Jim Ragsdale has 
been well corroborated by various fam- 
ily members, including Clint Brazeal, 
Wendelte and Willard Ragsdale, his 
wife Mary, and his mother-in-law, 
'Grandma Lucky.'" Now I was not only 
being asked lo accept Ihe existence of 

has now aggrandized his story and has 
thus discredited his own testimony. As 
Randle explained at last October's 
UFO conference in Pensacola, "The 
story he [Ragsdale] tells now is much 
more exciting than just seeing the bod- 
ies in the distance. He's now talking 
about going down and trying lo pull the 
helmet off one of the dead aliens and 
seeing big black eyes, which is not 
consistent with what we have learned 
about whai the aliens look like." 

I asked Randle if he could get me 
an interview with Ragsdale, but he 
pooh-poohed the idea. "Jim. last we 
heard." Randle said, "was living in a 
trailer near Carlsbad. He's from there. 
He's an irascible old man." 

Meanwhile, another witness has 
come forward to fill the gap, adding a 
weight of new evidence to Randle and 
Schmltt's new book. His name is Frank 
J. Kaufmann. although he is called 
"Steve MacKenzie" in the book. Kauf- 
mann served in the Army in Roswell 
until f945, and then stayed on in some 
paramilitary capacity. He saw the craft 
firsthand, he says, when he took part in 
a secret search for it, accompanied by 

high-ranking officers 
sance mission through Ihe desert. His 
name withheld ano M ; face blurred fo: 
his first television ;icceararce. Kaui- 
mann pointed ou: the actjai impact 
site during a Resell segment of 48 
Hows aired on April 3. 1994. 

Sococy. or snyress or both— st i 
charactc-izcs Kajt'-arn. wtio parce s 
out lis story >n nsta Iments. like a 
saged -o.-krt Ncrc-thc ess. ie nvited 
me to irto'vicw mm m h s Roswei 
heme Su"ounded oy n>s or pairtirgs 
o! landscapes, ho doscr bed me 
snaces-i c no saw as oc.-ig shaped 
ike a wing ess airolano. not a rojrd 
saucer l: was stuck at ar ang e in a 
sandy hill. Thojflh stil ntact. ■: hac 
popped a S de seam, and through this 
portal he could see the bodies. 

"I did everything in the world to try 
to block it out of my mind," Kaufmann 
said of the image thai still haunts him. 
"I kept that secret till a few years ago, 
when Randle and Schmitt came to me. 
I made them wait a year before I gave 
them anything. I just told them 
a little even now. I just told them 
the outside version." I under- 
stood him to mean that he 
had more to reveal, but could 
not risk the consequences of 

being branded a kook. 

Since Kaufmann offered no 
documentation for the secret 
group he said he'd belonged 
to, or of the debriefing where 
o secrecy — 

Try as Randle does to portray 
pute as a scientific debate — on 
with paleontologists wrangling 
ie precise shape of a Bron- 
head— the rancor weakens 
■■ e irguments on all sides. 

' -ie sole witness who remains every- 
one's darling is Glenn Dennis, a morti- 
cian at a Roswell funeral parlor during 
Ihe late 1940s. Since Dennis never 
■:<iiied to see the crashed craft, his story 

Dennis remembered that fateful July 
a weekend (now changed to the mid- 
c e of the following week, according to 
" s) as the 

phone calls from the base mortuary of- 
' ce' One inquiry concerned the avail- 
ability of child-size caskets. (The 
aliens, all witnesses agree, were as 
short as ten-year-old children.) In an- 
other call. Dennis said he was asked 
about preservation techniques for de- 
teriorated bodies, and also about the 
effects of embalming fluids on bodily 

lense. He traces his hieior-g mie-est 
in UFOs back to his own childhood 
sighting of one. Ho is ~arned to Mary 
Martinek, a ser-io. st.-itter n ne Abu- 
querque office- of Cong-essrran 
Schiff— the same U S rcoresentalive 
who requested the GAO stuay ot the 
Roswell Incident. 
Pflock b 

the absolute I 
Pflock told mi 

of the lestim 
(Pflock o 

mid h 






Dennis's testimony 

conundrum in Roswell. 
>nvinced Glenn is telling 
:th as he remembers it," 
after making short shrift 
imony of other witnesses. 
Kaufmann: "His story has 
evolved over the years. How could 
anyone be comfortable accepting it?" 
Pflock on Ragsdale: "Ragsdale claims 
he and his friend saw the flaming craft 
drop out of the sky during a violent 
thunderstorm, yet local newspaper 
weather forecasts and reports for July 
4 say nothing about significant light- 
ning or thunderstorm activity in the 
Roswell vicinity.") 

The key to the Dennis testimony, 
as revealed in his Omni in- 
the long-lost 

pected to produce evidence 
ol such things?— I had lo rely on my in- 
stincts to judge him credible or other- 
wise. As I listened to his account of the 
quickly deteriorating alien bodies, I be- 
lieved his anguish to be real, though 
the story did not convince me the event 
had taken place. When he mentioned 
that he had personally spoken to Wern- 
her von Braun (the Nazi German rocket 
whiz who brought the V-2 to White 
Sands) about the events at Roswell, he 
tipped the balance for me I could not 
follow him that far, 

Kaufmann is to Randle ano Scfttt 
what Gerald Anderson is lo Stanton 

w hen- 

were being aulopsied; how 
he met with this same nurse 
the following day over 
lunch at the Officers' Club 
on the base; and finally, 
how she vanished, never 
to be heard from again. 

. Stro 


forsaking all others. I have even heard 
the researchers attack each other s wit- 
nesses—and one another- with irsuits 

the likes of "flaming ass," "clown," and 
"liar." Within the community of Roswell 

rounds the discussion of conflicting 

saucers, as well as the 
tion. and appearance of 

96 OMNI 


i of 

fluids such as blood and stomach con- 
tents. Even more startling, Dennis re- 
called, an Army nurse at Ihe base told 

dered by visiting doctors to assist at 
the autopsy of three mangled aliens. 
The nurse had been sworn to secrecy, 
and she made Dennis give her an oath 
that he would never reveal her ider'j.y 

Dennis, now vice president of the 
two-year-old International UFO Mu- 
seum and Research Center in Roswell, 
no onger grants interviews with the 
news media. These days he speaks 
:ny to Karl T. Pflock of Piacitas. New 
Mexico, who has interviewed him for 
:'.■■.- 1 beginning on page 119. 

flock is a former employee of the 
Cia While living in Washington in the 
■960s. he became active in NICAP 
(National Investigations Committee on 
Aerial Phenomena]— an early pro-UFO 
study group founded in 1956. Before 
moving to New Mexico, Pflock worked 
as a congressional staff member, and 
served four years, from 1985 to 1989, 
as a deputy assistant secretary of de- 

Ing f 

j I play O 

records. However, all h, 
tracked down by Omni reporter Paul 
McCarthy (see story beginning on 
page 106), and shown to have led 
eventful lives after the Roswell Inci- 
dent. All except Dennis's nurse, who 
remains at large. 

Dennis gave her name to Pflock as 
Naomi Maria Selff. But Pflock con- 
cedes that he has been unable to find 
any records of her presence at Roswell 
Army Air Field in July 1947 — or any- 

S-ni arly.' writes F'itack, "no record 

of her family has been located. The 

search continues, but so far. she seems 

to have disappeared without a trace." 

Another possibility is that all efforts 

does not exist. Or she goes by a differ- 

Richard Neal, who investigates UFO 
events for a hobby, has been hot on 


learned her n 

1990, \ 

told me, the mortician hinted that 

Naomi's last name wasn't really Selff. 

"From what I gather," said Neal. 
"Selff was just a name to throw off the 
researchers." If so, the ploy has cer- 

Naomi by any other name aside, 
Dennis's version of the Roswell Incident 
is singular in regard to the atmosphere 
at the scene of the action. As he tells it, 
the Army base was jumping that July 
afternoon he first sensed something 
out of the ordinary Dennis saw Army 
ambulances parked outside the hospi- 
tal, chock-a-block full of strange pur- 
plish debris, and MPs milling about. 
even before he encountered the hub- 
bub inside the hospital. But former 
public relations officer Walter Haul, 
Dennis's friend of 40 years, who was at 
his desk on the base that day, recalls 

cept for Colonel Blanchard's asking 

flying saucer, 

As soon as I got to Roswell, I visited 
Walter Haul now 72, and to all appear- 
ances extremely robust, clear-headed, 
and affable. I met him at the new Inter- 
national UFO Museum and Research 
Center, ot which Haut is president— 
and, as I mentioned earlier, Dennis is 
vice president. This museum, right 
across from the courthouse on Main 
Street, opened its doors in October 
1992. It is the second such institution to 
take advantage of tourist interest in the 
Roswell Incident. The older (by six 
months) UFO Enigma Museum, on the 
outskirts of town, features a life-size 
diorama of the crashed saucer, com- 
plete with flashing lights, soft-sculpture 
alien figures in the sand, and a rifle-tot- 
ing store mannequin in an MP uniform. 

I was pleased that Haut spent two 
hours talking to me, since he is about 
as busy as he can be making television 
and radio appearances, granting press 
interviews, presenting after-dinner 
talks, and running the new museum, 
which is open every afternoon, and has 
already welcomed more than 44,000 
visitors from all 50 states and 54 for- 
eign countries. On broadcasts, he said 
with a weary sigh, he has been asked 
everything "except whether I wear boxer 
shorts or jockey shorts." On occasion, 
the local police dispatcher awakens 
him in the night to check out a reported 
sighting by a concerned citizen. 

"I think 99.9 percent of the time 
such things are explainable," said 
Haul, who recently had to convince a 
young policeman that what he identi- 
fied as a UFO was actually the bright 
star Sirius— and that it appeared to be 
moving across the- sky ' 
earth was turning. 

v Haut 

Roswell the .1 percent?" 

Long pause. I thought I sa 
torn between his down-to-earth irarnmg 
as a navigator and bombardier, and his 
public duty as museum president. 

"I would guess so," he conceded at 
length. "Maybe .005 percent. 

On i 


r of t 

premises, I was surprised to find two 
dozen copies of my book on radio as- 
tronomy, is Anyone Out There?, promi- 
nently displayed in the gift shop, cheek 
by jowl with titles such as UFO Crash 
at Roswell. not to mention souvenir 
Frisbees, hats, T-shirts, key chains, 
string ties, earrings, and even guitar 
picks emblazoned with the features of 
dark-eyed aliens. (I bought three of 
these for my son, the gilt flying-saucer 
earrings for my daughter.) 

do you recogni 

stories that linked the U.S. Army Intelli- 
gence Office of the 509th to a flying 
saucer crash near Roswell. Those re- 
ports had given the Roswell Incident a 
greater reality than any other sighting 
I seemed to know this, too, 
souvenir copies of the front 
>. Roswell Dally Record from 
9, 1947 on sale in the gift 

name?" I asked 

lim. pointing proudly 

"Well. I'll be 

he replied. "I don't 

think we sell too many of those," 

Undaunted, I 

asked Haut about the 

ease, without which 

no Roswell Incident 

itter how hard Stanton 

Friedman tried I 

breathe life into the 

event. The pres 

release had gener- 

ated the newsp 

per articles and wire 

July 8 a 

shop. They u 

relics in the whole museum. 

Colonel Blanchard," Haut re 

"When Blanchard talked to you 
about what to say, did he use the 
words 'flying saucer?'" ! asked. "Did he 
seem to be frightened?" 

"I've got an experience coming up 
in the latter part of March," Haut said 
by way of reply. "They're going to hyp- 

"They" turn out to be Randle and 
Schmitt— with help from Ihe Center for 
UFO Studies, eager to plumb Haut's 
memory on the chance that anything 
else of note actually occurred, 

"I do not remember the minute de- 
tails," Haut told me. "I feel that I've had 
a pretty full life, and how the colonel 
passed that information on to me I can- 
not honestly tell you. I don't know 
whether he called me on the phone and 

it you to put oi 

release and hand deliver it to the local 
news media. Here's what I want in it.' 


might h 

, "Haul, t 

you to pick up and take it around town.'" 
Wtien I pressed Haut about the au- 
thorship of the release, he answered 
frankly; "I cannot honestly remember 
whether I wrote it, whether he had given 
me the information and told me 'This is 
what I want in it.' It was not that big a 
production at that time, in my mind." 

flying saucer have been a pretty spec- 
tacular find? 

"Well, there were quite a lew reports 
of flying saucers at that time." Haul re- 
minded me. "I had a multitude of hats 

odo. i 

K [ll-.P 

d interest in Roswell 
1980s] started. 'Do you remember me 
coming home and saying anything 

Her reply, he recalled, was 

Haul's spin on the even 
seems to take the wind out 
the cover-up theory. In ar 
around Roswell, howevs 

whole incident never happened. 

These were two of the 
the Air Force and I chose no: to inter- 
view. The reason: Neither one had 
seen anything firsthand. In the annals 
of Roswell research, however, a person 
who has heard a rumor about the inci- 
dent may attain the status of "witness." 

A deft step in the cover-up purport- 
edly occurred at Fort Worth Atmy Field, 
soon after Marcel landed there on July 
8. According lo Randle and Schmitt. 
Marcel spread out the debris on the 
floor of General Ramey's office, the bet- 
ter to see it all. Then Marcel and 
Ramey left the room briefly. By the time 
they reentered, accompanied by press 
photographers, the strange materia 
had disappeared. In iis place was a 
shredded weath* 

quick s 


ving Newton, t 


itify the 

"the government" and ' 
military" with rolling eyes and 
in hushed tones, as though 
they were the KGB. The clerk 
al the hotel where I slayed 
while in Roswell gave voice to 

about the Russians." she said. "People 

our own country." 

In books and on television specials, 
when the usual Roswell suspects ate 
rounded up and trotted out, the likes of 
Lydia Sleppy and Frankie Rowe recite 
the threats they received from the FBI 
and the military police. Sleppy was try- 
ing to send a teletyped news report 
Irom the local radio station when the 
bureau interrupted her transmission 
and signaled her not to complete it. 
She obeyed and never complained till 
Friedman found her years later. Rowe 
tells how her father had been sum- 
members of the Roswell Fire Depart- 
ment, and later told her he saw two 
body bags and one live "very small 
being" near the wreckage of some kind 
of flying craft. She subsequently heard 
rumors that the being was being taken 
to the base hospital, and that it walked 
in on its own. She couldn't divulge any 
of this, however, she told Randle and 
Schmitt. because "The Air Force or the 






in contact with meteorological apparatus. 

"There was nothing to it." Newton 
concluded of the debris. "I went back 
to work and forgot about it " 

Something of a small cover-up seems 

tioned by the Air Force, in order to dis- 
guise the military purpose of the balloon. 
On July 10. 1947, the day after-the 
"emptying" of the Roswell saucer, a full 
explanation of the "flying disc" ap- 
peared in the Alamogordo News It de- 
scribed a press briefing that had 
helped reporters understand what all 
the fuss was about in Roswell. The 
story included an elaborate descio 
lion, plus photo, of the balloon-borne 
corner radar reflector that the Army be- 
lieved had crashed on the sheep 
ranch. Elements of the description 
published in this article matched key 
points in the accounts of both Marcel 
and the rancher Brazel. To wit: The bal- 
loons trailed "paper triangles covered 

longest pieces of woodlike 
material were about three 
or four feet. The article 
said, "These corner reflec- 

weather balloon as a weather balloon. 
Then Ramey fielded all the reporters' 
questions so that Marcel didn't get to 

General Ramey's weatherman assured 
me that nobody had pulled a fast one 
on Marcel. 

"I remember Marcel chased me all 
around that room," Newton said. "He 
kept saying things like. 'Look at how 
tough the metal is,' look at the strange 
markings on it.' He wouldn't have made 
such a big effort to convince me the 
thing was extraterrestrial if he thought 
» looking = ' 

"But you k 

curred. "I said I'd eat it with salt or pep- 
per if iiwasn'taRawin." 

Newton added that Marcel should 
never have been faulted for failing to 
recognize the balloon and its attach- 
ments, since he would not have come 

eryll'i'ii; rj'i'iw ijtil 
is very igrr and is towed 
by a synthetic rubber oai- 
loon maco of nccprere." 

the article offeree 

Sucn aevices were bang 
launched at Alamogordo and all over 
the nation, the article continued, for 
radar target practice. Thus the article 
gave the impression that the balloons 

in reality, however, the particular 
balloon equipment the Air Force now 
says landed at Roswell as part of the 
top-secret Project Mogul was not at all 

logical balloons in two 650-fooi-higr 
strings that were, in essence, a forerun- 
ner of today's spy satellites. It be- 
longed to an experimental effort to 
monitor nuclear bomb tests from the 
Evetything about Project Mogul, the 

Air Force said in 

its recent report, was 

classified top Si 

cret with the highest 

priority — Priority 

A, on a par with the 

ultimate hush-hL 

hedness of the Man- 

hattan Project. 

nd although Project 

1950, after just four 

years of operati 

n, it retained its top- 

B. Moore, professor emeritus of atmos- 
pheric physics at the New Mexico Insti- 
tute of Mining and Technology in 
Socorro, who served in the New York 
University part of the project as its en- 
ir. Whatever the name of the proj- 

Moore, was th 
weapons for i 

d'etre, according to 
"tremendous concern" 
e United States r-a'AUe 

t, much like 

st had e 

Japan in just eight days. Mindful of that 
danger, scientists in the Long Range 
Detection Program (eventually known 
as Project Mogul), tried to eavesdrop 
on the world for the telltale sounds of 
clandestine bomb tests. 

Moore believes that both Blanchard 
and Ramey were ignorant of the pro- 
gram when they made their public 
comments about the weather balloon — 
although they were probably informed 
after the tact. For this reason, Moore 
said, neither one of them should be ac- 
cused of participation in a cover-up. 

"II you see a bus and you say it's a 
bus." Moore explained to me, 'it's sill a 
bus— even if it's being used to haul 

The particular piece of Project 
Mogul that sparked the Roswell Inci- 
dent. Moore thinks, was a test flight 
launched from Alamogordo on June 4, 
1947. History of the project goes like 
this: The NYU group had tried to moni- 
tor an explosion at Helgoland, an is- 

Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. But \ 
high winds prevented the launch of the 
monitoring balloon from Bethlehem, the 
Army Air Force scientists moved the 
operation to Alamogordo where they 
planned to track the balloons using the 
radar. To aid in the tracking, the NYU 
group took with them some special 
T:d;.ir targets that had never been used 
before in New Mexico. One of the 
nteresting features of these new tar- 
gets is that they were reinforced with 
Scotch tape on which a pinkish-purple 
abstract flower design had been 
printed. Reportedly, the first targets 
with the new design had failed when 
they were flight-tested near the end of 
WWII, so a quick fix was devised for 
the later targets, using the only tape 
immediately available. 

The first balloon train launched from 
Alamogordo was NYU Flight #4. Ap- 
parently, according to radar signals, it 
was lost over the town of Arabela. New 
Mexico, about 70 miles northeast of 
Alamogordo. Flight #5, launched on 
June S, 1947. was tracked as well. Mili- 
tary records show that this flight as- 
cended to 60.000 feet and' then landed 
26 miles east of Roswell. 

The runic designs on the tape seer 
to answer the longstanding queslio 

about the pastel-colored markings o 
the original debris— Marcel's hterc 

at all," and "different geometric 
shapes, leaves, and circles." 

Credit for first tying the latter-day 
Roswell incident to Project Mogul goes 
to independent researcher Robert 
Todd of Ardmore, Pennsylvania. Todd. 
originally a believer in UFOs, has aban- 
doned 20 years' work as a UFOIogist in 
the wake of his discovery. 

"I ti salisficd witn Mogul as the solu- 
tion," Todd told me. "I don't think Jesse 
Marcel had ever seen a radar target." 

The Air Force, giving first credit 
where it's due to Todd, also acknowl- 
edges that Glenn Dennis confidante 
Karl Pflock, much to his credit as a re- 
searcher, independently came to the 
same Mogul-Rosweii conclusion. Let 
the flowered tape fall where it may, 
Pflock still thinks Glenn Dennis is the 
real ho ding 1'ie incident together. 
Because in Pflock's scenario, the UFO 
that crashed and killed its alien crew 
may have collided with the ill-fated 
Mogul balloon — or went out of control 
-viilo iiy.rq I::: r^vo'-ri a collision. 

' Pllij.-.-.l. 

of crewed vehicle and one of Charlie 
Moore's unwieldy monsters may have 
brought both down." 

In other words, Mogul is not enough 
to account for the full-blown Roswell In- 
cident. Thus the Ait Force report, and 
the Times page-one story that announced 
it, have already been dismissed out of 
hand as "garbage" (Friedman's word) 
by aficionados of Roswell. 

"I just have one comment about it." 
said Waller Haul, repeating to me what 
he'd already told the Times. "All they've 
done is given us a new balloon." 

But 1 had a higher opinion of the Air 
Force investigation. It was clearly writ- 
ten and internally consistent. And when 
I questioned Lieutenant James McAn- 

supports the findings, he was more 
fotthcoming than I could have hoped, 
and had more knowledge at his military 
fingertips than in all fhe books by 
I r edrn-ir. Rflfdlr;. ano Schmm. 

"About Frank Kaufmann." McAn- 
drew interjected as politely as he 
could. "He has no records at St. Louis." 
McAndrew was referring to the National 
Personnel Records Center, the reposi- 
tory of all past and present military per- 
sonnel records (the place where Omni 




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Now we bring you the latest 

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Call the 

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Interview by Karl T. Pflock 

Photos by 
David. Michael Kennedy 


Glenn Den- 
nis, right, 

on the UFO 
case of the 

high school in the 

thai Glenn Dennis got his unusual 
start. "The teacher was going around the room 
asking us what we wanted to do for a living." 
Dennis recalls, "and I will never know why, but I 
said, 'I want to be an undertaker.'" He got what 
ho thought he wanted; All the girls laughed. But 
little did Dennis realize that this flip remark 
would seal his fate, detetmining his career (mor- 
tician) and thrusting him into national promi- 
nence as the key witness to the most notorious 
UFO case the world has ever known. 

Indeed, teachers being what they were, Den- 
nis was asked to write a report on undertaking. 
To his surprise, he found the subject fascinating. 
And soon after, in 1940. he began working part 
time at the Ballard Funeral Home while attending 
Roswell High School. After graduation, excluded 

from World War II 


hearing loss. Dennis apprenticed as an em- 
balmer at Ballard, working to put his twin sister 
through nursing school and to save enough 
money to attend the San Francisco College of 
Mortuary Science, from which he graduated on 
December 22, 1946, 

The Mortician of Roswell Breaks His Code of Silence 



i set up house- 
funeral parlor. 
> put in charge 

■ Ftoswell Army 

job at Ballard, Dennis married < 
keeping in a cottage behind t 
There, the 22-year-old Dennis \ 
of the company's military conti 
lance and mortuary service for 
Air Field (AAF). nearby. 

Dennis was setlling into his life as a "country 
funeral director" when, during the first week of 
July 1947, cowboy William W. ("Mac") Brazel 
moseyed into the Roswell office of Chaves 
County Sheriff George Wilcox. He announced 
he had found a large amount of unusual debris 
on the ranch he managed about 75 miles north- 
west of town. The sheriff contacted authorities at 
Roswell AAF, and by noon of Tuesday. July 8, 
the base public relations department had rolled 
into high gear: The U.S. Army Air Force had re- 
covered one of the mysterious "flying discs," the 
press release declared. The implication, 
bandied about in headlines around the world, 
was that military officers had recovered an ex- 
traterrestrial vehicle, "a flying saucer." to be 
exact. But hours later, at his Fort Worth, Texas, 
headquarters, Eighth Air Force commander 
Brigadier General Roger M. Ramey deflated the 
excitement: The alleged saucer was nothing 
more than the rrn-raeriii.e'i '-emainsof a weather 
balloon and its radar target. 

There the matter rested until the late 
1970s, when UFO researchers Stan- 
ton T. Friedman and William L. Moore 

ir look at the 

^■t Roswell case. Their conclusion: The 
official denial was a cover-up. The Army Air 
Force had indeed recovered the remains of a 
flying saucer, just as originally announced. Even 
more startling was their claim that bodies of the 
craft's alien crew had been discovered and 
somehow spirited away by the military. This last, 
extraordinary claim gets its strongest backing 
from the testimony of Glenn Dennis, who, back 
in 1947. was the young mortician on call. 

At the center of what is now considered the 
most controversial UFO story ever told, Dennis 
says that back in 1947 he was an innocent and 
reluctant player. He relates a story replete with 
the trappings of second-rate film noir: mysterious 
telephone calls, military strong-arm tactics, a se- 
cret autopsy of aliens, and a missing nurse who 
knew too much. In brief, he claims, after driving an 
injured airman to the base as part of his job as 
ambulance driver, he wandered into a top-se- 
cret military operation in which Air Force doctors 
were examining humanoids, or so it seemed. In 
fact, it became hard for him to escape that con- 
clusion, he states, when an Air Force nurse, also 

fittingly swept up in the covert operation, told 

film noli, 
this story is 
with mys- 

and then promptly disappeared. 

Always gracious, Dennis until recently has tried 
to accommodate virtually everyone. Now. however, 
tired of the intrusions, frustrated by what he says 
are published distortions of his recollections, and 
angered by the attacks and ridicule of skeptics, 
he avoids the media and most UFO investigators. 

Dennis has agreed to break his silence of re- 
cent years at last, however, in an interview for Omni' 
with writer and UFO researcher Karl T. Pllock, who 
is a former deputy assistant secretary of defense 
and intelligence officer. For those fascinated by 
the Roswell case, it is possible to read the testi- 
mony of the star witness for the first time here, 
without benefit of anyone else's spin, pro or con. 

Omni: How did you first become involved in the 
events now known as the Roswell incident? 
Dennis: I received a phone call from the Roswell 
Army Air Held mortuary officer on July 7 some- 
time after lunch, around one-thirty. I have no 
idea who it was, but he asked if we had any 
baby caskets, three fool six or four foot, hermeti- 
cally sealed. I told him we kept a four foot. Then 
he asked how many we had in stock. I told him we 
had two. He asked how long it would take to get 
more. I told him, if we called Texas Coffin Com- 
pany in Amanllo by three o'clock, we could have 
them by Hill Truck Line at six the next morning. 
Omni": Did he tell you how many he wanted? 
Dennis: No. I just said, "Hey. what's going on?" 
And he said, "We're just having a conference 
here about the future. In case something hap- 
pens, we may need a lot of them," 
Omni: Did the call seem unusual to you? 
Dennis: No. I didn't think anything about it until 
later. We got that kind of inquiry all the time. 
Omni; But then you got another call. 
Dennis: About forty-five minutes later the same 
man called back. He wanted to know about em- 
balming fluid: what chemicals it contained, what 
it would do to bodies that had been 
lying out in the open. Would it 

Would it change the tissue, the 
blood? He also wanted to know 
about our procedures for removing 
bodies from a site and for prepara- 
tion of bodies that had been lying 
out in the elements and might have 
been shredded by predators. 
Omni": Did he say they had bodies in 
that condition? 

Dennis: No, just that the information was for fu- 
ture reference. He also wanted to know, if they 
transported a body under those conditions and 
without embalming, how they should do it. Back 
in those days, we didn't have air-conditioned 

hearses or a pathologist in Roswell. So 
I told him I would go to Sunset Cream- 
ery or Clardy's Dairy and buy all the 
dry ice I could and pack them in it. I 
also told him, if he had a "hot one" — 
that is, if he didn't know the cause of 
death — they'd better contact a patholo- 
gist and damn sure do what he told 
them. I think I suggested they try Wal- 
ter Reed Army Hospital in Washington, 
DC, because I remembered bodies of 
local boys who died in the service 
coming to us through there. I also re- 
member telling him very politely, "You 
give us the specifications, you tell us 
how you want the bodies prepared, 
and we'll prepare them according to 
your specifications, not ours." 
Omni: What happened next? 
Dennis: A good forty-five minutes to an 
hour later, we got an ambulance call for 
an airman hurt on a motorcycle. He 
had a bad laceration on his forehead, 
and I think he had a fractured nose. I 
put a tourniquet on his forehead, put 
him in the front seat of the c 

and drove him to the base. In 
emergencies like that, we 
turned the red light on about a 
block from the gate, and they 
waved us through. 
Omni: After you got on the 

Dennis: I went directly to the 
infirmary. When I swung into 
the driveway, there were three 
old Army field ambulances 
backed up at an angle at the 
ramp where I usually parked, 
e standing i 

edge, along the curve, and down one 
side. They were about four inches high, 
darker than the background, and 
clearly were deliberately put there. 
Omni: You have said the symbols re- 
minded you of Egyptian hieroglyphics. 
Dennis: When I was in mortuary 
school, we studied Egyptian mummifi- 
cation and burial practices and cus- 
toms. The bodies they'd pick up off the 
streets went on a funeral barge, which 

There was always a decoration on the 
barge's side, a white swan or a pan- 
ther. After I had a chance to think, I re- 
alized what I saw resembled the 
they put around the necks 

go in at 



Omni: Did you see anything 
other ambulances? 
Dennis: I saw the s 
age in the second one The doors 
closed on the third ambulance, 
couldn't see what was in it. 
Omni: Did the injured soldier sei 
material, too, and did the MPs do any- 

d of wreck- 


talking to someone through the 
went up to him and said, "Sir?" 
ied around, and I said, "It looks 
had a plane crash. Do I need to 
id get ready for it?" 
Omni: The captain was not someone 
you knew. 

Dennis: I'd never seen him before. He 
looked at me and said, "Who in the hell 
are you?" I remember that real well. He 
was real snotty I told him I was from 
the funeral home, that we had a con- 
tract with the base, and said again, 
"Looks like you had a crash." He said. 
"Don't move from here, don't take one 
step," then walked away. After a lew 
minutes he came back with two MPs. 
strangers to me. He told them, "Get 
this man off the base. He's off limits. 
You drive him back to town, make sure 
he gets back there." So they started to 







Omni: Did they physically rr 

you as has been reported? 

Dennis: Oh, no They weren't roughing 

me up or anything. They were real nice. 

But then we'd only gone a 

n feet when a voice said, 
ring that SOB back 
■re." We turned around 

e around tc 

between. So I 

and parked, ai 


Omni: What did you 

up the ramp? 

Dennis: When we got to the first ambu- 

id the ai 

up the ramp behind the 

you walked 

ness, naturally you're going to 
saw something in there that look 
half of a canoe, leaning up agaii 
side near the open door. It was stand- 
in end, and I was very close to it. It 


thing about your snooping? 
Dennis: The MPs didn't even look at me, 
as far as I know. They may even have 
been gone by then. It wasn't like they 
were there guarding it. The airman saw 
the wreckage, too. but he was more 
concerned with his injuries. I followed 
him into the infirmary. 
Omni: Didn't you have to sign him in. 
do some paperwork to get paid? 
Dennis: To get paid, you I 


it thre 

i half. 

maybe four feet high. All around the 
bottom of this thing, all over the floor, 
was a lot of wreckage. It was all sharp. 
and as best I can remember, it was like 
broken glass. Some of the pieces and 
the "canoe" looked like stainless steel 
that had been put in high heat. It 
shaded from very shiny to pink, to red, 
to brown, then black. 
Omni: Were there any markings? 
Dennis: I remember markings on the 
canoe-shaped thing, around the outer 

front desk. 
I never did get I 
thing signed. It wasn'l a big deal be- 
cause the ambulance business was so 
minor, more of a goodwill kind of thing. 
Omni: After he was whisked away, what 
did you do? 

Dennis: I started down the hall to the 
lounge area to get a Coke There was a 
lot of commotion, a lot of officers' — two 
or three of them women — buzzing up 
and down the hall, but I didn't know any 
of them. There was an officer, a cap- 
tain— I remember seeing his bars- 
leaning next to an open side door. I think 

redheaded captain, about 
six three or four, with a real 
short crew cut and the 

seen, like the devil himself 
looking at me. He had with 
him a black sergeant who 
was holding a clipboard. 
Omni: Where did they 
come from? 
Dennis: Somebody went and got them. 
I guess. Anyway, the captain came up 
to me and poked a finger in my chest 
and said, "Look, mister, you don't go 
into Roswell and start a bunch of ru- 
mors that there's been a crash. Nothing 
has happened here, you understand?" 
And he kept poking me. Of course, I 
was getting a little upset. I said. "I'm a 
civilian and you can't do anything to 
me. You can go to hell!" That's when he 
jabbed me again and said, "Somebody 
will be picking your bones out of the 
sand." Then the sergeant said, "Sir, he 
would make better dog food." So I 
popped off at him. too. Then the cap- 
tain said, "Get the son of a bitch out of 
here," and the MPs started taking me 
back down the hall again. That's when I 
saw the nurse. 

Omni: This was your friend, an Army 
nurse assigned to the base infirmary? 
Dennis: Right. She came out of a sup- 
ply room to our left, right in front of us. 
and there were two men who came out 
behind her. She had a towel over her 
face. She looked up and saw me, and 

she screamed, "Glenn! Gel out of here 

!• She W 


ir. and she v 
the hall, through another door. The two 
men followed her. They were gulping 
for air, loo, and looked like they were 

Omni: Did you smell or see anything 
that might have made Ihem sick? 
Dennis: I don't remember smelling or 
seeing anything strange. When the 
MPs got outside with me. one of them 
turned around and said, "What the hell 
at all about?'' We went right back 

o theft 


rest of the day. 
Omni: What did you do then? 
Dennis: I picked up the phone and 
tried to call back out to the infirmary 
and the nurses' quarters to find out 
what was going on, but I couldn't get 
through. Nobody answered 
Omni: When you went home, did you say 
anything to your wife about this? 
Dennis: No, I didn't talk about it to any- 
body, until my dad gave me no 
choice. Let me tell you some- 
thing. I never mixed my family 

business. I never discussed a 
body, a funeral, names, any- 
thing. When I left the funeral 

But the next morning, around 
six o'clock. Sheriff George 
Wilcox, a good friend of my 
dad's, went to my folks' house 
with one of his deputies. 
George said he thought I was 
in a lot of trouble out at the 
base. He said. "You tell Glenn, if he 
knows anything, to keep his mouth 
shut. They want all your kids' names, 
they want to know when they were 
want to know where 

;t of eggs. My 

said she wasn't on duty. Later that 
morning she called me, about ten-thirty 
or so She said she knew I'd been try- 
ing to reach her, but that she'd been 
very sick. Then she said, "But I have to 
talk to you." She was crying. 
Omni: Why do you think she came to 
you instead of someone else? 
Dennis: Because she'd seen me at the 
hospital and thought I knew something, 
I suppose. Anyway. I suggested the of- 
ficers' club, which was only about a 
block from her quarters She agreed, 
and I drove straight out there. She was 
standing outside waiting for me, and 
we walked in and went to the bar be- 
cause the dining room was closed. The 
place wasn't busy, but we took a table 
in a bask corner. I asked her if she 
wanted anything to eat, and she said 
she didn't. She was crying, almost hys- 
terical, and sick to her stomach and 
ash white. She was in unilorm, but re- 
ally disheveled. She wanted to know 
what happened to me. I told her what 
they did to me. but I didn't know why. 

amined the bodies. 

Omni: Did the nurse know who the 
doctors were or where they were from? 
Dennis; I asked her, and she said she'd 
never seen them before. She told me she 
heard one say to the other that they'd 
have to do something when they got 
back to Walter Reed Army Hospital. 
Omni: Did she describe the bodies? 
Dennis: She said a hand was severed 
from one of the mangled bodies, and 
they turned it over on a long forceps. 
There were only four fingers. They had 
little pads on the tips with what looked 
like tiny suction cups. Their mouths 
were only slits, one inch wide. There 
were no teeth, only a firm piece of tis- 
sue like cartilage. One thing that 
caught her attention was where we had 
only one ear canal, they had h 

:arlobes. The n 

bridge. The eyes were very, very la 
and sunken so far back in you coul 
tell what they looked IS 

it for s 

i. the 






probably ruptured, t 
said the bone structure 
showed they were large. 
She said the heads were 
disproportionately large, 
and the doctors noted the 
skull structure was like a 
newborn baby's: flexible. 
She also said the bone 
from the shoulder to the 
elbow was much shorter 
than the one from the el- 

She si 

id, "Well, I 

II you why." She 

ally si 

d got lr 

n up, ( 

s to o 

house by 

he could. He almost knocked our door 
down and bounced me out of bed. It 
wasn't very much after 6:00 a.m. 

I got up and Dad and I went outside 
and I finally told him what happened, 
just like it happened. At first he said 
our government wouldn't do a thing like 
that. Then he got to thinking about it. 

when I was a kid, and he about killed 
me— so it must be true. Then he got 
very angry. But he said he wouldn't 
talk about it because he didn't want me 
to get killed. 

Omni: Did you continue to try to con- 
tact the nurse? 

Dennis: I called out there and finally 
got through, but didn't get her. They 

ular infirmary staff wasn't supposed 
report for duty. Somehow she didn't get 
the order, so she went to work as usual 
and went into the supply room to get 
her day's supplies. When she did, there 
were the two men. doctors, in surgical 
masks and everything. There were two 
gurneys, and there was a body bag on 
each one. Both were unzipped The 
doctors were at one gurney. with the 
bag folded back. There were two small, 
mangled bodies in the bag. She said 
the smell was the most horrible, most 
gruesome smell she'd ever smelled in 
her life. The doctors said something 
about it being toxic, but I can't say 
what that means. 
Omni: Did the nurse try to leave? 
Dennis: She didn't get a chance. She 
said they ordered her to come over 
and told her, "We have to have some 
help. Lieutenant, you have to take 
notes for us, write down what we're 
looking at, what we tell you." She wrote 
down everything they said as they ex- 

Omni: Did she say anything 
about the more intact body? 
Dennis: She said that, as the doctors 
examined the mangled ones, they 
would go over and look at 
body, comparing things It k 
three and a half to tour feet te 
said she looked at it. and it was horri- 
ble, and she remembered one of the 
doctors said the features reminded him 
of those of a 100-year-old ancient Chi- 
nese. Then they all got sick and had to 
leave the room. Thai's when we met. 
Omni: She took notes durtng the exam- 
ination Did she also m,-:ko drawngs' 
Dennis: No. She dfd that tba' night She 
went home anc lock a * w vrwCf and 
some other nurs^ helped 'ier. wanned 
her hair and everything Lvidendy. the 
smell was so strong on he' li:ey 
couldn't stand it, ethe' 
Omni: Why did she cccide to ma-« tfe 

Dennis: She made the drawings for 
me — but only after I'd made a solemn 

them. She wanted to know if I sav, 
same things she saw. She asked i 
they brought the— I think she c; 


them "creatures" — to the furera 1 home 
I told her I hadn't seen the boo esi. tnal 
they hadn't been taken to Bai arcfs 
Omni: What did she make the drawings 
on and with what? Were the'e any 

Dennis: They were in penci and sne 
did them on the back of a preset p: cr 
pad. She said she didn't have anyth ng 

Omni: What did she c 
ings after she showed 
Dennis: She gave then 
she wanted me to hi 
maybe it was for her protect on S'e 
said, "Guard them with your ife.' 
Omni: Did she have any internal or 
about what became of the bodies'; 
Dennis: She said there we? a '. ■>;■ 
they had been moved to a hangar, 
where the autopsies had been finished 
that night. The head nurso think it 
was a Captain Wilson, told ho- they 
were flown out to Wright- Palter son Ai' 
Force Base in Ohio. 

Omni; Do you remember an/pi.g ::••.•• 
she told you that seemed important? 
Dennis: The doctors said ne'e was 
nothing in the medical textbooks :o 
cover what they had. She also over- 
heard them saying the booies were 
found with or in some wreckage two or 
three miles from where everything else 
was located. 

Omni: How did your meeting end? 
Dennis: She began to feel much worse. 
I drove her back to the nurses' quarters 
about noon, and that was it. 
Omni: You left the base with her draw- 
ings and notes. What did you do with 
them then, and what became of them? 
Dennis: Well, I hid them for a long, long 
time, then put them in my personal and 
legal files in the funeral home base- 
ment. When I finally left Ballard's in 
1962, I left my tiles behind— shouldn't 
have, but I did. When UFO researcher 
Stan Friedman and I went to Ballard's 
to look for them a few years ago, the 
cabinets were still there, but empty. All 
were missing. The manager 
n told us that he and another 
S Lucas, cleaned out every- 
said Lucas hauled it all to the 

Omni: Returning to 1947, after meeting 
with the nurse, you had no doubt there 
was something very much out of line 
going on. When did you see the news- 
paper with the captured saucer story? 
Dennis: About six or seven that night I 
went in to write an obituary, and the 
paper was lying on the desk at Bal- 
lard's. I picked it up, saw the headline, 
and thought, "Maybe that's what she's 
gotten into!" 

Omni: Did you discuss the meeting 
and what the nurse told you with your 

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father or anyone else? 
Dennis: I never mentioned her, period. 
Omni: When did you try to contact her? 
Dennis: I kept trying to get ahold of her. 
I tried for two or three days, and they 
said she wasn't there, then I went out to 
the base on call, maybe a week or so 
later, and Captain Wilson told me she 
had been shipped out the same after- 

Omni: July 8 Did you hear from the 
nurse later? 

Dennis: About six weeks, maybe two 
months later 1 got a typed tetter. The 
envelope was addressed to Ballard Fu- 
neral Home, not me personally. The let- 
ter was to "Dear Glenn" and had no 
signature, just her typed name. It gave 
a New York APO number [overseas 
mil tary mailing address] where I could 
write her. It said she was in England, 
didn't have time to write, but that we'd 
correspond and she wanted to know 
what happened to me. To tell you the 
truth, I don't think it came from her It 
didn't sound like her. I think somebody 
wrote it to try to find out what I knew. 
Omni: Did you respond? 
Dennis: I wrote saying I was glad to 
hear she was okay and, when she was 
ready, to write back. Another si* waeka 
or two months later that letter came 
back. Stamped on the Iront was "Re- 

turn to Sender," an: 

torn, stamped in n 


Omni: What did you do with the letters? 

Dennis: I kept them in the same file as 

the drawings and notes I made on 

what she told me, in a big envelope 

marked "Personal." 

A long time later, I told Captain Wil- 
son about the returned letter and 
asked her if anybody ever heard what 
happened to the nurse. She said the 
she had gone down o 


Inlng n 

Omni: Bight, several careful investiga- 
tions have turned up nothing. And now 
even you seem to think the nurse didn't 
die in 1947. When and why did you 
change your mind, and have you tried 
to locate her since? 

Dennis: It was just a few years ago. I'd 
always hoped she was alive, but it 
wasn't until I learned from [UFO re- 
searchers] Don Berliner, Kevin Randle, 
and Don Schmitt that there was no 
record of a plane crash like the one 
she was supposed to have been in, 
that I really thought she might still be 
alive. I haven't tried to contact her be- 
cause the way we left it the last time we 

was July 5. 1947. A day seem- 
ingly like any oltier in the 
ett town of Roswell. 
1 Mexico. A nurse who worked 
at the Roswell Army Air Field hospital, a base with 
about 5.000 military personnel, was going about 
her usual routine over the long July Fourth week- 
end, when she stumbled onto a scene that shook 
her to the core. In search ol supplies, she 
opened the door to an examination room and 
watched two strange doctors bent over the bod- 
res oi three smalt humanlike creatures. Oh. they 
resembled humans, all right, but there was a dif- 
ference: Their bodies were too small, their arms 
too spindly, and their heads too bald and big. 

Two were badly mangled and decomposed, 
while a third appeared relatively intact. A stench 
permeated the air. The physicians quickly enlisted 


Article by Paul McCarthy 

Photographs by 

David Michael Kennedy 

the n 

s help and the autopsies continued 
until all concerned were overwhelmed by the 
smell from the rotting bodies. 

At least this is what happened if you believe 
a story long held true by those who say a UFO 
crashed into the desert near Rcsweli, New Mex- 
ico, one summer nighl long ago, spitting five ex- 
traterrestrials into the arms of U.S. Army medics, 
who autopsied the shattered remains. Accord- 
ing to the legend— because by now. in UFO cir- 

referred to by pundits as Nurse X, decided to 
tell all. The recipient ol this extraordinary confi- 
dence; 22-year-old Glenn Dennis, the town mor- 
tician. But Dennis would be privy to the strange 
revelations on one condition: He would, forever, 
keep the identity of Nurse X under wraps. 

Dennis, who this month talks to Omni in the 


puzzler: Did 
five un- 
lucky nurses 
in the wake 

tt beginr 

100, s 

Nurse X because of his second job— driver of 
the town ambulance. As such, he was on the 
base frequently to drop off injury victims. The 

day of the alleged ET incident, Dennis says that 
the hospital and then 

regular doctors 
or anybody. The 
only familiar person that I saw was her." 

Naturally, Dennis wondered what was going 
on and a few days later set up a luncheon date 
with Nurse X to find out. Afterward, Dennis claims, 
she returned to the base, never to be heard 
from again. Dennis tried to contact her but was 
told she had been transferred. And still later "the 
rumor was," says Dennis, "that she went down 
in a plane that was on a training mission," 

After six months the incident died away, ac- 
cording to Dennis, and wasn't raised again until 
the 1980s when UFO investigators descended 
on Roswell. "I just didn't want to be bothered," 
says Dennis. "I never told my wife or anyone 
else. My lather is the only one I ever talked to. It 
was never brought up, you know. II never was." 

There is much more to the alleged 1947 UFO 
crash near Roswell than Ihe recollections of 
Glenn Dennis, of course, and throughout the 1980s 


(above) an 
In a shed 
by Mac 

a swarm of investigators pieced a story together 
through the accounts of many other people. 

Even so, Dennis's part is an importanl one and 
central to the event. So I was all ears one day 
last year when, while interviewing Don Schmitt. 
one of the two major researchers on the Roswell 
case, the topic of missing nurses came up. 
Schmitt, who with Kevin Randle wrote The Truth 
about the UFO Crash at Roswell, said there 
were no official records to show that Glenn Den- 
nis's nurse, or five other nurses who appeared 
in photos in Ihe Roswell base yearbook, ever 

^ed in the military. 

'Once again it appears as if they really cov- 

Schmitl, referring to what he 
says is a government cover- 
up of Ihe evidence of the 

crash. And. he went on to 

3fe had looked. They 
scoured the planet up, 
j sideways for 
a, he told me. to 
no avail. The suggestion: 
The government had will- 
possibly, the earth, in its effort to hide the alien 
crash at Roswell. After all, the assumption went. 
dead women tell no tales. 

Schmitt said he had worked with the Army 
Nurse Corps Historian's Office at the Depart- 
ment of Defense in an allempt to track the five 
yearbook nurses who, it was assumed, might 
have talked to Nurse X, heard something, or 
parlicipated in some way in the Roswell inci- 
dent. He had also checked with such organiza- 
tions as the WWII Flight Nurses Association, the 
Military Reference Branch of ihe National 
Archives, and Stars and Stripes, the military 
newspaper in Washington DC. for some sign 
that the nurses had served. No luck. 

Even the Women in Military Service for 
America Memorial Foundation in 
Washington, DC, had never heard of 
Ihem. Schmitt told me, adding, "We 
are working now with some Pentagon 
officials who are more than a bit fascinaled by 
the fact that even though we have photographs 
of these nurses from the yearbook, there are no 
records on these people." 

Randle had also tried lo uncover the frail of the 
Glenn Dennis nurse — the infamous Nurse X. He 
had. he told me, looked through the unit history 
of the 509th Atomic Bomb Wing that was sta- 
tioned at Roswell, as well as the unit's transfer 
orders. He said he'd scoured the base phone- 
book and the town newspaper, which frequently 

welcomed newcomers to the base. He 
also did credit searches on the 
woman — whose name, he says, Glenn 
Dennis had divulged to him — and her 
alleged brother, but came up empty. 
Then Schmitt tried birth certificates and 
baptismal records, based on home- 
town information supplied by Glenn 
Dennis, with equally dismal results. 

The Schmitt-Randle conclusion, 
communicated emphatically, was 
plenty clear: Either Glenn Dennis had 
fabricated Nurse X, they said, or the 
government had eliminated all vestiges 
of actual, and documented, life. 

The Challenge 

When I told my editors at Omni this in- 
triguing tale, I proposed writing it up as 
an example of investigatory diligence 

!-■' ■ ;=>■ i ■ 

UFO r 


searchers would go to uncover wi 
nesses. To my surprise, Omni sa 
something entirely different. It was a 
opportunity to doublecheck Randl 
and Schmitts claims— a situati 
does not arise that often in 
UFOIogy. Had they exercised 
due diligence? Could I find 
the nurses' records? And, my 
editors asked cagily— the ex- 
pense budget being small- 
could l do so from my desk in 
Hawaii, without leaving home? 
The task was especially 
important since the missing 
nurses pointed ' 

1940s volumes of the Army Register in 
the Federal Government Document 
Depository of the Hamilton Library at 
the University of Hawaii. The Air Force 
was part of the Army until they went 
their separate ways in 1947. and the 
Register purportedly listed the dates of 
enlistment, promotion, death, and re- 
tirement for all personnel. There was 
even a section devoted to the Army 
Nurse Corps— column upon column of 

Roswell nurses. 

Next I tried Lieutenant Colonel Caro- 
lyn Feller at the Army Nurse Corps 
Historian's Office in Washington, DC. 
She couldn't help me but suggested 
Bill Heimdahl at the Air Force Histo- 
rian's Office, also in Washington. Heim- 
dahl put me on to the World-Wide Air 
Force Locator at Randolph Air Force 
Base in Texas. A Captain Tom Gilroy 
found a listing for one of the nurses. 
Major Claudia Uebele, and her retire- 
ment date, 1965. I checked the Air 
Force Register for 1965, found her, and 


rr uptt 

i other 

it Ros- 


ords in three days flat, something the 
Roswell researchers told me Ihey'd been 
unable to do in five arduous years. But 
could I find the nurses themselves? 

Finding a Nurse 

Three weeks later, the records arrived 
in Ihe mail. Fanton had died in 1975 
and Godard in 1981. Then, one of 
LaRue's relatives told me she had been 
dead for three or four years. That left 
Uebele and McManus. The records 
only gave the city of last-known resi- 
dence. That was Phoenix in 1978 for 
McManus and Seal Beach. California, 
in 1971 for Uebele. But the Personnel 
Records Center would forward letters 
to the exact addresses. After calls to 
directory assistance in both cities 
turned up nothing, I decided to write 
letters and send them through the Per- 
sonnel Records Center. 

To do this, I began working with 
Charles Pelligrini, a management ana- 
lyst at the center. Two months later the 
letters were returned — addressee un- 
known. Pelligrini suggested 
:ry the Veterans Admin s- 
ation (VA). If :ic women 
ad collected d ;aui i-y 
:nefits, they woulo be In 
e VA files, and I ecu J at 
ast find out if they were 
:ad or alive. The VA had 
jthing on McManus, but 
■und that Uebele had 
ed just three months ear- 

Pelligrinijhen i 
gested th 

is Randle and Schmitt claimed. If 
the nurses had been wiped off the face 
of the earth, as the researchers insisted, 
thai would mean someone had gone to 
great lengths to "erase them." But if the 
nurses could be found, if there had 
been no effort to purge them from the 
databank of life, that would deal the 
conspiracy theory a notable blow. 

I halfheartedly agreed to look for the 
nurses myself, but didn't have high 
hopes. Hadn't these guys been al it for 
five years? This was their life. What 
chance did I have, given my limited 
travel budget and my time frame — a 
few mere weeks? 

The Search 

I had the names of the six nurses— five 

from the Roswell Army Air Field year- 
book for 1947. previously supplied by 
Randle, and Nurse X, given to me by 
Randle as well. (For more on the true 
identity of Nurse X. held by some to be 
Naomi Maria Selff. see "The Truth 
about Roswell," which begins on page 
90.) So I began by digging in the mid 

jotted down her serial number. 

With that in hand, I again called 
Lieutenant Colonel Feller, thinking that 
with a serial number, she might be able 
to get me an address or phone num- 
ber, assuming Uebele was still alive. 

No luck. But this time she recom- 
mended Bill Siebert, archivist al the 
National Personnel Records Center in 
St. Louis, which purportedly has records 
for all past and present military person- 
nel. Bingo. Siebert had records for the 
five nurses but nothing for Nurse X. 
Records were complete for Majors 
Joyce Godard and Claudia Uebele and 
partial, reconstructed records existed, 
because of a 1973 fire, for Captain 
Adeline Fanton, First Lieutenant Angele 
LaRue, and Lieutenant Colonel Rose- 
mary McManus. To access these, all I 
had to do was make a formal request 
using the Freedom of Information Act, 
which enables citizens like me to ask 
the government for information and, 
provided it isn't classified, have some 
realistic expectation of receiving it. 
Amazingly, l had located the rec- 


Office in Cleveland, which cuts pen- 
sion checks. They had nothing under 
Rosemary A. McManus, the name on 
her personnel records. This led to an- 
other chat with Pelligrini. McManus had 


d had tf 

been known as Rosemary M. Jentsch 
and Rosemary J Brown. "Try Rose- 
mary J. Brown," said Pelligrini. He was 
right. And to my surprise, a clerk in 
Cleveland not only pulled up her name. 
but gave me her city of residence, too. 
Directory assistance even supplied a 
phone number. 

Brown was 78 and in a nursing 
home, but alert. She had already been 
approached by two other investigators, 
possibly Schmitt and an associate, but 
Ihe names escaped her. Yes, she had 
been stationed at Roswell in July 1947. 
She remembered the other four year- 
book nurses, but not Nurse X. and not 
Glenn Dennis himself. 

What's more, she told me, she had 
witnessed nothing to suggest a crash at 
Roswell or any unusual goings-on at the 
base hospital. "I had no sense of any- 


Who were the Roswell nurses? It has been 47 
years since the Roswell incident, but through 
military records and talks with family members. 
we have been able to piece together some facts 
about each woman. One thing is certain: They 
didn'l vanish. They went on to have families, mil- 
First Lieutenant Angele A. LaRue. According to 
her son Fred Thessing. Angele LaRue was born 
in Montreal, Canada, on May 26. 1922. She weni 
to nursing school in Waterbury, Connecticut, 
and then entered the Army-Air Force Nurse Corps 
on April 9. 1945. LaRue served at Roswell and 
alter that, with the 7th Bomb Wing at Carswell 
Air Force Base in Texas. She married Frederick 
Thessing, an Air Force pilot, in 1948 and left ac- 
tive duty in 1949. She went on to raise four sons. 
Like many military families, the Thessings 
moved a lot. living in Texas, Nebraska, Florida, 
and Connecticut. LaRue was an ardent spelunker, 
coin collector, and enjoyed traveling. She was 
diabetic and eventually developed heart dis- 
ease. She died in 1986 in Conway, Arkansas. 

Captain Adeline M. Fanton. Adeline Fanton 
was born March 16, 1916 
Louisville. Kentucky. She ; 
tended nursing school 
Saints Mary and Elizabe 
Hospital in Louisville, 
ing to Mary Fanton, 
relative. Fanton entered the 
Army-Air Force on April 19. 1945. She i 
married, but served in the Corps in variot 
pacities for 13 years. After her Roswell tor 



w\'i a 

■ 1975. 

March Field, California, ; 
the 5001st Medical Group at Ladd Air Force 
Base in Alaska. She served at a number of base 
hospitals until her retirement in 1958. In 1951 
she received the American Campaign Medal, 
and in 1953 she was awarded the National De- 
fense Service Medal 

Captain Joyce Godard. Born in Milledgeville. 
Georgia, April 8. 1912, Goddard attended Geor- 
gia College lor Women for one year in 1929 and 
received her RN degree at Milledgeville State 
Hospital in 1932. From 1932 through 1938 she 
worked as a nurse at the Aiken County Hospital 
in Aiken, South Carolina. Godard entered the 
Army-Air Force Nurse Corps on March 1 1, 1942 
and did her basic training at Barksdale Field in 
Louisiana. She served at Roswell from August 

1946 through August 1947. Her work involved 
service as a general duty nurse, an administra- 
tive nurse, a flight nurse, and at the close of her 
career (August 1959-May 1962), as chief of 
nursing services, 2796th U.S. Air Force Hospital, 
Norton Air Force Base, California, where she re- 
ceived the Air Force Commendation Medal. Ac- 
cording to her cousin Mark, who is the last of the 
Godard clan, she returned to Milledgeville after 
retiring in 1962 and worked at the local hospital. 
She died on Christmas Day 1981 , 

Major Claudia Uebele. Born February 20, 1905, 
Uebele received her RN in nursing at Bethesda 
Hospital in Cincinnati. Ohio, in 1930. On March 
15. 1945 she joined the Nurse Corps and did 
her basic training at Billings General Hospital in 
Indiana. Uebele served at Roswell in 1947 and 
went on to practice general duty nursing at 
places like Marks Air Force Base in Alaska and 
MacDill Air Force Base in Florida. She finished 

801st Medical Group a! Lockboume Air Force 
Base, Ohio. Uebele received the American 
Campaign Medat, the WWII Victory Medal, and 
the Air Force Commendation Medal, among oth- 
ers. She retired in 1965 and died in Seal Beach, 
California, on May 17. 1994. 

Lieutenant Colonel Rosemary J. 
Brown. The only surviving Roswell 
nurse is Rosemary J. Brown, the for- 
mer Rosemary A. McManus. who 
was born January 11, 1915. She re- 
ceived her nurse's training at St. Mary's Hospital 
in Wausau, Wisconsin, in 1942. Brown entered 
the Nurse Corps on April 6, 1944. After serving 
at Roswell in 1947. she was stationed at various 
bases in the southwestern United States as a 
general duty nurse and a surgical nurse. She 
also spent 18 months in French Morocco. Brown 
married twice and enjoyed traveling. "One of the 
most fascinating places I went was Alaska," 
says Brown, who spent a two-week vacation 
there. She received various military commenda- 
tions, including the European-African-Middle 
Eastern Campaign Medal and the Air Force 
Longevity Service Award with one bronze oak 
leaf cluster. After her retirement in 1975 she 
worked eight years for the state of Wisconsin as 
an inspector for the Medicare/Medicaid Pro- 
gram. She resides in a nursing home now, and 
when it comes to her views on UFOs. she says 
she has none, "other than I am sure that there is 
something there but I haven't any idea what. "DO 

thing weird happening at all." slated 
Rosemary Brown, formerly McManus. 

Interestingly enough, based on 
readings in recent years, she felt the 
crash scenario along with the recovery 
of bodies was plausible. "I know that 
something went on, and I know it was 
very hush-hush. And I know I didn't 
know anything about it (at the time]. It 
was closed up tight as a drum, you 
know, by the base officials." 

about it from base personnel, either. "I 
II you that people 

they knew anything, they kept their 
mouths shut — you know, the pilots and 
others. I heard nothing directly." 

And she says she wasn't told to 
keep quiet. "We were in the medics. 
We were not involved in anything like 
that. If anybody was. it might have 
been one of the doctors on duty." 

She had not kept up with the other 
nurses. But through the grapevine, she 
knew that Angele LaRue had married, 
had had twins, and had moved to Cars- 
well Air Force Base in Texas. She also 
knew that Joyce Godard had died, but 
was surprised to learn that Adeline 
Fanton and Claudia Uebele had 
passed on as well. 

The Roswell Researchers React 

What would Schmitt and Randle say to 
all this? Schmitt wasn't returning my 
calls, so I gave Randle a ring. He was 
surprised that I had found the records 
and asked how I had done it. When I 
explained that I had gone through the 
St. Louis Records Center and that I 
was amazed Schmitt hadnt done the 
same thing, he agreed. "Surprises the 
hell out of me, too. I thought that would 
oo the first thing Don would do.™ 

Although Randle had located some 
witnesses through St. Louis, he was 
also astonished that they would send 
out records on living people, particu- 
larly when I didn't have serial numbers. 
"It sounds as if there were two ways to 
get there," said Randle. "One was the 
interstate highway system, and the 
other was the back gravel roads. And 
Dor- took the back gravel roads." 

My take on that: Don had tried to 
use some special connections, possi- 
bly through his secret government con- 
tacts or the Internet, instead ol asking 
right out. I also began to feel that 

Schmitt actually worked independently. 
When the right hand doesn't know what 
the left is doing, what kind of investiga- 
tion is that? 

Randle said he was impressed with 
my straightforward approach. In the fu- 
ture, he told me, he would follow my 

lead in seeking other 
who had seemingly disappeared. He 
also said he would have Schmitt give 
me a call. 

Weeks passed, and finally Schmitt 
left an enigmatic message on my ma- 
chine. I tried to call him to talk directly, 
but he did not return my calls. 

Frustrated. I finally called Randle 
again. He was incredulous that Schmitt 
had not gotten Pack to me. "I told Don 
it was imperative to get back to you," 
he explained. "I don't want you to say 
something in your article that is not 
true, just because we have not made 
proper connections." 

He also said that Schmitt would 
send me documentation showing he 
had tried St. Louis in 1990, but had 
been told that there were no records. 
Schmitt would definitely call me, said 
Randle. "so we don't look like clowns 
bumbling around 

e had c 


i. My ir 

it t^e s 

vestigation was coming 
time as the Air Force's attempt 

credit their Roswell research with its 
own Roswell report ("Report of Air 
Force Research Regarding the Roswell 
Incident"). In the major thrust of this 
new, 1994 report, the Air Force con- 
tended that the object found at Roswell 
was actually a high-tech weather bal- 
loon, part of the Air Force's once-top- 
secret Project Mogul. 

But the Air Force report also con- 
tained other information of special in- 
terest to me. One of the Roswell books, 
apparently the Randle/Schmitt volume, 
had claimed there were no records on 
file with the Veterans Administration or 
the Department of Defense for eleven 
servicemen stationed at Roswell in 
1947. The Air Force went on to say, 
"That claim sounded serious, so inves- 
tigators checked these eleven names 
in the Personnel Records Center in St. 
Louis. Using only the names (since the 
authors did not list the serial numbers) 
the researcher quickly found records 
readily identifiable for eight of them. 

The other 1 
names that the 
tipie pos si bi litis 
un phased by tl 

To Randle. I 

i had such 
3 could have been mul- 
;." Still, Randle seemed 
is discovery. 

■a exi.'vjialion was sim- 
he and Schmitt had 
ibout the disappearing 

raised a stink 

to the St. Louis files. Randle said this 
wouldn't harm their reputation, how- 
ever, because Schmitt had the docu- 
prove that the records 

quested them in 1990. 

n heh 

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were misfiled or in use by other re- 
searchers when Schmitt asked for 
them. He offered as evidence the fact 
that the records of some military per- 
sonnel critical to the Roswell story were 
easily located, while others less central 
to the reported events of July 1947 
had seemed to evaporate. "This would 
jggest that there 

ding tc 


Dodging Disinformation 

What about the nurses? To my amaze- 
ment, S oh mitt, who had finally reached 
me. did an about face: In a total rever- 
sal of his position, he told me he'd 
known about the St. Louis records and 
had documentation of his search. In 
fact, he said, he'd even found and in- 
terviewed Li 
mary J. Brown. 

I was incredi 
about to base ; 
story on Schmitt's fruitless search for 
the missing nurses, and he says he's 
been pulling my leg. "It is not that we 
we r e putting out misinformation," he 
said, "it is just that we were denying 
that we found anything." He also ex- 
pressed surprise that four of the five 
yearbook nurses were dead. 

Why the initial claim of the vanishing 
records, which is what resulted in my 
investigation? His explanation goes 
something like this: Schmitt believes 
that Brown may actually be Glenn Den- 
nis's nurse — the woman who allegedly 
was present at the alien autopsy— even 
though her name is not the same as 
the one Dennis gave him "because she 
is about one and a half hours from Min- 
neapolis-St. Paul, which Glenn was 
under the impression was Nurse X's 
home town." Granted, Brown does not 
admit to any knowledge of the alleged 
crash, but Schmitt still hopes that she 

_ot to them. 
All well and good, 
make an issue of the mi 
the first place, as if their very absence 
were proof of a government attempt to 
perpetrate conspiracy, erase informa- 
tion (and even people], and be sinister 
in the extreme? 

The Slippery Sands 

I was now deep in the heart of conspir- 
acy country, and I had to watch my 
step if I wanted to get at the truth, be- 
cause these were slippery sands. 
Here's how my logic went; On the one 
hand, it was possible that Randle and 
Schmitt had, as they now claimed, 
known about the nurses from the git- 
go. deciding to feed Omni erroneous 
information on some lark. It could be 
that when I contacted them they said. 
"Ah, there's our stooge!" On the other 
hand, perhaps they hadn't found the 
-perhaps their original story, 

i'ie o 

. "She may or may not ki 
'.. That is why w 

Omni initially, had been deliv 
straight. Could they have been embar- 
rassed that their five-year search, in- 
cluding private detectives, elaborate 
inside connections, and computer ex- 
pertise, had been largely unsuccessful, 
while I'd come up with the goods in 
three short days? Might they have in- 
vented their latest story just recently 
to save face? 

Like the nurses themselves, I rea- 
soned, I could find the truth in docu- 
mentation. I would press Randle and 
Schmitt to show me proof. And the evi- 
dence I'd ask for would be specific. I 
myself, after all. had found the nurses 
through St. Louis. I had documents to 
that effect, including the papers re- 
ceived by way of the Freedom of Infor- 
mation Act. Randle and Schmitt 
claimed they had traveled that route — 
the superhighway for information in this 
case — as well. If so, they should have 
papers, tc 


left rr 

gloves," says Schmitt, "and 
why I haven't publicized the fact that 

I later confronted Randle, and he 
agreed Schmitt's current claim was true 
as well: "What we found in the past." 
said Randle, "is that when we have let 
stuff slip out early that it has come 
back to haunt us in some lash en." So 
now they kept information quiet until it 
was thoroughly researched. They even 
knew about the death of Major Joyce 
Godard. another one of the Roswell 
nurses, but didn't reveal it, because 
they wanted to talk to her surviving rel- 
atives, said Randle, before other re- 

swering machines and waited weeks 
for my calls to be returned. I'd just 
about given up hope of ever hearing 
from them again when, one day. Schmitl 
called He had been in Roswell, he said, 
had returned, and was, as usual, ready 
to help me in any way that he could. 

To get the documentation on the 
St. Louis searches he told me to con- 
tact his assistant, Brad Radcliffe, a 
Wisconsin ncrapisi. who had done the 
work. But when I called Radcliffe at his 
place of employment, using the num- 
ber Schmitt had given me, Radcliffe 
didn't know who I was or what I 
wanted. In fact, in keeping with his 
practice of not mixing UFO work with 
his day job. he asked that I fax my 

request for the documentation. 

The next day I got even more "help" 
from Schmitt. Sarah Gillmore, another 
assistant, called to say that several 
months earlier she had talked to Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Brown and that she 
would answer any questions that I had. 
Even though I had not asked Schmitt 
for any information on Brown, Gillmore 
and I had a pleasant chat, and I even- 
tually discovered that Gillmore didn't 
know anything about the St. Louis 
records search or its documentation. I 
reiterated my request for documenta- 
tion, and assumed that it would get 
back to Schmitt — again. 

My take was this: Schmitt wanted to 
show me he could be helpful, even if 
he didn't have any documentation 
showing that he had queried St. Louis. 

The following day my fax cranked 
out five pages from Radcliffe. Unfortu- 
nately, it was all about his attempts to 
get confirmation from the Pentagon, 
various retired nurses groups, and 
other organizations that the nurses had 
served in the military— information I 
had not asked lor— while my request 
for St. Louis documentation was com- 
pletely ignored, except to say that St. 
Louis had no listing for the women. The 
next day I left a message with his wife 
indicating that what I really needed 
was the St. Louis material. She said her 
husband would get back to me. 

When I hadn't heard from Radcliffe 
in four days, I gave him a ring just to 
make sure that he knew what I wanted. 
He was confrontational and disdainful 
of my efforts, even though he wouldn't 
let me tell him what I was doing. "I re- 
ally don't have time now," he said. Nor 
did he offer to make it. He again told 
me to follow up with the Pentagon and 
the nurses organizations and didn't 
want to hear anything about St. Louis. 
The message I got was that if the 
women weren't on file with the places 
he had checked, then it was unimpor- 
tant that I had found their records at 
the St. Louis center. 

"I could have my twelve-year-old go 
to St. Louis and get records," said Rad- 
cliffe, as if to offer the ease of getting 
information there as his reason for not 
l.iijrsu nq thai avenue first, if at all. 

I was beginning to thin- Rac-cMle 
was the end of the chain. The nurses 

ll.Kl iJ!":Cn 'lis riSSlXiriSli "I IV. Hid he liS'd 

not tried the obvious— St. Louis. On top 

records the Air Force so easily un- 
earthed for their Roswell rebuttal, also 
have been his responsibility? No won- 
der he didn't want to talk to me. 

Even so, I decided to take Rad- 
cliffe's advice and touch base with his 
sources. I would redo Radcliffe's 

id see what he had found. If 

was now covering its tracks, the evi- 
dence, after all, would be here. 

I started with Stars and Stripes. I 
was told they had back issues of their 
newspaper but no records for the 
Roswell nurses or any other nurses. I 
was referred to Stars and Stripes. Pa- 
cific and European, housed at the Pen- 
tagon. They didn't keep records of 
nurses, either, bul suggested the 
Women in Military Service Memorial 
Foundation, also in Washington, a 
source Radcliffe had not cited, but 
whir: n Schmitt had mentioned. 

At the foundation, Lieutenant Gen- 
eral Wilma Vaught, Retired, entered all 
the names into her database, but 
couldn't find a match. Still, there was a 
rub. Vaught pointed out that someone 
had to submit the names of the women 
in order for them to get into the data- 
base. It is something anyone can do, 
but "there's a potential of 1 .6 to 1 ,7 mil- 
lion names and we've only got about 
150,000, so there are all kinds that 
have never been entered," she said. 
It's not surprising, then, that the 
Roswell nurses weren't there. 

Following Radcliffe's lead, I also 
contacted Captfi-n Eihc-I Cerasale. Re- 
tired, a Floridian nnd oast president of 
the World War II Flight Nurses Associa- 
tion, who has been active in the group 

records because she has been in- 
volved with the organization for so long 

that s 

s the n 

my records go, 
I've had them around for a long time, 
and I am very familiar with them. And I 
don't recognize any of the names," she 
said. But she also said that there was 

some-Thing sfrarxis or sjspoct about a 
woman not being on file with her orga- 
nization. "It was a very small group 
who were Air Evacuation Nurses," said 
Cerasale. "and we only have about 500 
members now." 

Undeterred, I called Colonel Ruth 
Fussell, Retired, another Radcliffe 
source in Florida, who I assumed was 
the head of, or an officer in, the Society 
of Retired Air Force Nurses. To my sur- 
prise, she was not an officer in the or- 

don't even go to the meetings any- 
more." she said. She didn't have any 
records, but did check her member- 
ship directory— the sort of booklet all 
members receive — which didrt list any 
of the Roswell nurses. But that didn't 
surprise Fussell since the society is a 
voluntary organization. "People don't 
have to belong," said Fussell. Why had 
Hadciiffe approached her? "I don't 

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Maybe I did: Perhaps Radcliffe 
didn't know how lo do this sort of re- 
search In any event, I slogged on. 

But the story was the same at the 
National Archives and at the U.S. Army 
Center of Military History, both in Wash- 
ington, DC. Experts in both places di- 
rected rne. specifically and emphati- 
cally, to the records center in Si. Louis. 

"The St. Louis Records Center has 
the personnel files, which are proof thai 
someone served," said Archivist 
Oeanne Blanton of the Military Refer- 
ence Branch of the National Archives. 

"This is only a small office." said the 
Nurse Corps Historian, Major Connie 
Moore . "The people who keep person- 
nel records are in St. Louis." 

It was uncanny. Even when I repli- 
cated Radcliffe's search, all roads led 
to St. Louis. Even if I'd done it his way, I 
would have gotten to the Roswell 
nurses in three days tops. 

Radcliffe. on the other hand, had 
asked these organizations for the 
when they couldn't com- 



e the fact that I 
had ever served in the Army Nurse 
Corps at all. In his fax to me he even 
cited the records of the Society of Re- 
tired Air Force Nurses and the WWII 
Flight Nurses Association and wrote, 
"They claim to have everyone who was 

End Game 

Vv'noro noos n s ns-/e us? li we can 
believe the records, and I suppose if 
we are entertaining conspiracies, we 
have to enter the caveat that maybe we 
can't, the mystery is solved. The 
records have been found and the 
whereabouts of all the nurses — except 
for the elusive Nurse X— have been de- 
termined. And remember: We have lit- 
tle more than the word of Glenn Dennis 
that this woman ever existed because, 
like 10 or 15 percent of Roswell person- 
nel, her photo was not in the yearbook. 
In any event, it can no longer be 
claimed that the women vanished, if it 
ever could. 

As to the second mystery — the mys- 
tery of Randle and Schmitt— that re- 
mains unsolved. Were they feeding me 
misinformation from the start? Did they 
know, all along, that Captain Joyce Go- 
dard was dead and Lieutenant Colonel 
Rosemary Brown was still alive? If so, 
why did they lead me on, deliberately 
encouraging a national magazine to 
publish a story they knew was a lie? 

Or, on the other hand, was their re- 
search just unforgivably sloppy? Did 
they delegate so much responsibility to 
untrained help that they lost oversighl 

and ultimate control? Did they really 
think fhe nurses had vanished off the 
face ol the earth after service at 
Roswell. only to learn otherwise in the 
face of Omni's investigation and then, 
in a panic, try to hide I heir mistake? 

Their explanations aside. I don't 
think I'll ever really know. 

Anyone who has read the books ot 
Randle and Schmitt knows they have 
put in a lot of work over the years. Here 
are a couple of guys trying to recon- 
struct an event that occurred almost 50 
years ago. No easy task. And if they 
are right, they are also butting heads 
with elements of the federal govern- 
ment. But they have been caught with 
their panls down on this one. Not only 
do they now say they fabricated their 
"vanishing nurses" claim, which they 
hoped would be published in Omni, 
they also cited evidence that just didn't 

that in UFOIogy, more than in fields 
where follow-up and replication are 
common, researchers have a special 
obligation to get it right and not inflate 
their claims. To paraphrase astronomer 
J. Allen Hynek, one of the scientific fa- 
thers of the field, "extraordinary claims 
require extraordinary evidence." Ran- 
dle and Schmitt have not produced the 
latter here.Dd 


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to catalog and translate the entire 
human genome already in the works, 
science has just begun to carve the 
genetic Rosetta Stone. It may turn out 
that I'm a little optimistic in believing 
that dinosaur cloning lies only 20 years 
away It could be 50 years, but I agree 
with Spielberg that we are looking at 
science eventuality, not science fiction. 

So while I wait here at the midpoinl 
of the last decade of the second millen- 
nium, with both amber and dinosaur 
marrow under refrigeration, I rejoice to 
see how closely science and science 
fiction have dovetailed. But it is also im- 
possible for me to forget the warning 
spoken by Jeff Goldblum's character in 
the film: "Your scientists were so preoc- 
cupied with whether or not they could 
that they didn't stop to think if they 
should: A few people have suggested 
that I should be offended by such 
statements, that the film is "antitechnol- 
ogy," and that it "trashes" my ideas. 
Not at all. Jurassic Park does what 
good science fiction is supposed to do: 
It looks ahead to what bridges we may 
soon be building and asks us to con- 
sider very carefully what trolls may be 
hiding under those bridges. Crichton 
and Spielberg challenge us to start 
thinking about the trolls before we ar- 
rive at the bridge, before we have to 
deal with them. 

I don't really believe that the for- 
merly extinct will ever get loose,, eat our 
lawyers, and threaten tc 
world. But I do see mc 
gers on the road al 


Consider re- 

; sample all 
: Amazon and to | 
. in liquid nitrogen 

ready, because 
becoming increasingly fashionable in 
ceriair industrial circles to stop worry- 
ing about felling the foresls, because 
with care the extinct can be brought 
back again. So here we sit, you and I. 
on the brink of a genetic frontier in 
which our hopes of resurrecting exvnot 
life forms may actually encourage the 
very behaviors that cause extinction 
A fanciful hope— that is how it began, 
a hope to invent the ultimate paleon- 
tological tool that would allow me to 
study my favorite creatures face to face. 
/hat did the Greeks name the last 
demon to escape Pandora's box; the 
Pandora almost managed to slam 
id on; the most horrible of them all, 
because it came disguised as a bless- 
ing? Did they not call it Hope?DO 

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rs thai he has spent here. 
In fact it's no paradox. His very earthi 
son Dennett has been able to reach so ' 
circles of philosophical academia with 
sciousness Explained, and recently, 
Darwin's Dangerous Idea. The term 
"philosophy" might conjure images of 
impenetrable prose and irrelevant ar- 
guments, but Dennett's work avoids 
the dreary formal logic and technical 
jargon clogging other philosophical 
texts. He makes his abstract points 
about the nature of mind and proc- 
esses of evolution vivid and accessible 
with real-life anecdotes and easy-to-try 
thought experiments. One need hardly 
hold a Ph.D. to appreciate his ideas. 
Although he's most concerned with his 
books' reception among colleagues. 
he has relished responses from high- 
school students, dentists, and used- 
car salesmen. An artist in Germany 
used one suggested experiment from 
Consciousness Explained to create a 

j. (The i 


Educaled a 
Dennett, 53, he 

nitive Studies 
he's taught si 

Harvard and Oxford, 

Is the Center for Cog- 
11 Tufts University, where 
ice 1971. Over the years 
le perhaps the most ur 
compromising and outspoken propc 
nent of a materialist philosophy c 
mind. According to Dennett and othi 
materialists, the mind— everything th; 
makes up you, your thoughts, feelings, 
dreams, desires— arises entirely from 
the brain's physical activity. There are 
no ethereal spirits or immortal soul, just 
the wet matter between our ears. 

In explaining how selves need no 
souls, Dennett borrows the concept of 

Richard Dawkins. Simply put, memes 
can be any sort of cultural unit, ideas 
transmittable from person to person— 
the idea of the wheel, wearing dvihi--. 
chess, basketball, catchy songs or jin- 
gles: Greensleeves is a meme. Com- 
parable to genes in that they 

memes make the elements of culture 
into an evolutionary system like biol- 
ogy. Those memes in our brains (you 
could say I hose memes "infecting" us), 
give us the makings of a self. The T is 
a cultural artifact, the product of the ac- 
quisition of memes. The very idea of se 

theless makes no bones aboul his convictions. In Darwin's 
Dangerous Idea, he declares unequivocally thai evolution "is 
example of a scientific fact as the roundness of 
e has no patience wilh adherents of what he 
calls a "mind-first" cosmology— where 
the material world arises out of "con- 
one's, rather than the other way 
around — nor does he tolerate the illogi- 

beliefs. Paraphrasing Aristotle, he 
says, "If you can find someone who de- 
like talking to a cabbage." 

In Darwin's Dangerous Idea, he 
:akes tc task evoi.r.onist Stephen Jay 
Gould, mathematical physicist Roger 
Penrose, and linguist Noam Chomsky, 
as well as fellow philosophers. In some 
cases it's just polite professional dis- 
agreement, but in others there's a dis- 
:mc'y pcsonal note to the criticism, "I 
have been harsh on a variety of peo- 
ple." Dennett admits, "but I think with- 
out exception the people 



me thing I really don't like it's 
very influential, charismatic, 
iant person engages in willful 
re of the opposition. When I 

jrprisingly, he's got enemies in 
osciences. linguistics boogy 
veil as philosophy. 
Some of Dennett's critics consider his 
eclecticism an excuse to dismiss his 
arguments, claiming only a specialist 
could evaluate the research in any 
area well enough to comment on it. But 
to Dennett and others in his camp, the 
synthetic approach offers the only 
hope of addressing the big questions 
of the origins of life and conscious- 
ness. "You're going to have to be 
bold." he says. If any one word could 
sum up the man who would title his 
book Consciousness Explained, that's 
certainly it.— Robert K. J. Killheffer 

Omni: How did your colleagues react 

to Consciousness Explained? 
Dennett: In general I've been delighted. 

seriously— everybody si 

prise and dismay, have been unable to 
take seriously the book's radical chal- 
;y think, Well, that just can't be. [Philosopher] Ned 
ims to be one of those who still hasn't come to 
the real possibility I'm right. And lots of others just 
message too radical for them. One neat thing was 

that p 

n the n 

sponded by saying. Well, I Ihought ( 
was a good materialist until you 
showed me just how counterintuitive 
materialism really is. Now that I see 
what I have to jettison from my tradi- 
tional woridview to be a good material- 
ist, maybe dualism looks a bit better. 

This pleases me because I wanted 
to show that materialism isn't this sim- 
ple, intuitive, "the mind is the brain" 
concept. They're facing the problems 
in some regard more forth rightly than 
materialists still trying to cling to what I 
call a Cartesian materialism. They 
threw away the interaction ism [mind- 
body dualism] but kept the place 
where it all comes together, the Carte- 
brain]. My goodness, people have de- 
fended that view vigorously. That's 
been perhaps the most interesting as- 
pect of the response. And 

e that tr 

work could be reinterpreted to 
and extend my views. Rod B 
MIT said. "We think you're 
right about consciousness 
and would like to try to model 
some of them in this robot." I 
thought, great! That's like 
being handed Aladdin's lamp! 
Omni: What should be the re- 
lationship between philosophy 
and neuroscience? 
Dennett; Most of what's done 
by philosophers of 
ally not of much he 
live and neurosci' 
inhcihiing that has 
but other disciplines can averi 
their eyes. It doesn't matter to them yet 
But if you view philosophy of mind as a 
branch of philosophy of science, 
whose point is to clarify and alleviate 
conceptual problems arising in sci- 
n the work is important to 

computes a specific function. Thinking 
that way, then Al has almost never 
been concerned with algorithms. (Al 
researchers take "algorithm" to mean a 
set of instructions that can be followed 
by rote, but need not have any goal, 
specific purpose, or end.] So the whole 
point of The Emperors New Mind is 
sort of misbegotten. It's really a sort of 
stunning error on Penrose's part, be- 
cause he quite innocently went ahead 
treating algorithms the wrong way. It's 
time for Emily Litella to come out and 
say, Nevermind! 

We had a debate at Dartmouth las! 
spring where he presented chapters of 
his new book. Shadows ol the Mind, 
and I presented portions of my Pen- 
rose chapter from Darwin's Dangerous 
idea. Although Penrose has now rec- 
ognized that this is not a small loophole 
but a major gap in his argument. I don't 
think he's really confronted it properly. 
He still rails lo make his case, but at 

he'd realized. 

vous system, microtubules are as good 
a place as any to start. But Hameroff's 
claims strike me as confused. 
Omni: You mean the inhibition of quan- 
tum effects in microtubules is what pro- 
duces unconsciousness in anesthesia? 
Dennett: I challenged Hameroff if as an 
anesthesiologist he'd ever assisted in 
an operation to reattach a severed 
limb. He said no. And I said, "If I under- 
stand you right, according to your the- 
ory of consciousness, you really ought 
to anesthetize the severed limb before 
it's reattached. Because after all, it's 
got a full dose of microtubules in it, and 
if consciousness depends on the oper- 
ation of microtubules, then that arm is 
feeling pain before it's reattached." My 
impression then was that it had never 

good answer for it. 

Omni: More basically, is some sort of 
magnification of quantum effects really 
' itlfic explanation of 

n Elbow Room, I dis- 

Dennett: li 





3 the qui 



n avoid going down 

overwhelming legacy of 

bias in the neurosciences. Even today 

fingers wet are in jeopardy of not being 
taken seriously. 

Omni: Are Roger Penrose's objections 
to Al based on a similar bias? 
Dennett: In his case it's a very specific 
mislocalion of the issue. He gets it in 
his head that what a mathematician 
means by an algorithm is the same as 
what Al people have meant by algo- 
rithms, and that's really not true. Think- 
ing the way mathematicians think, an 
algorithm is a terminating Turing ma- 
chine that probably does a certain 


sot ir 

Omni: What about Penrose's notion that 
microtubules in neurons— so small that 
the behavior of single electrons can 
have a strong effect— are a likely brain 
site for significant quantum mechanical 
effects? And that these quantum ef- 
fects, such as the simultaneous exist- 
ence of several probability states for a 
single particle, somehow give rise to 

Dennett: The microtubules— Stuart 
Hameroff's ideas. I got a good intro- 
duction to that from Stuart and Roger 
at a workshop two years ago in Lap- 
land, up with the reindeer and midnight 
sun. On the one hand. Penrose was 
right to recognize that the neuro- 
science in The Emperor's New Mind 
was woefully inadequate and sketchy 
and he had to find some base of oper- 
ations if he was going to continue that 
argument. I think Hameroff's ideas are 
dubious at best, and this is not a good 
wagon for Penrose to hitch on to. But 
there it is; he's become enthusiastic 
about it. If you're looking to find magni- 
fication of quantum eflects in the ner- 

whether quantum random- 
ness is necessary to get 
free will. It's easy enough 
theoretically to install it, 
but, I argued, nobody had 
ever shown it was neces- 
sary. You could get 
pseudorandomness, as it 
were, much cheaper at a 
macroscopic level by just 
adding a sort of number 
generator providing you 
with a coin-flip, whenever 
you need one. Pseudoran- 
apparently gives you all the 
power you'd ever get from quantum 
randomness. You want randomness, 
you can install it in the nervous system. 
What good does it do you? 

It's conceivable that computation at 
the molecular level matters, but no- 
body has given a good reason to think 
it does. Penrose imagines he has be- 
cause he thinks he's shown that human 
mathematicians can do something no 
Turing machine can do, and that to him 
presents something of a dilemma to 
the materialist: Either we have to be 
frank dualists, or we'll have a revolution 
in physics. His argument is just broken- 
backed, so he hasn't found a reason 
for going quantum, 

Omni: Penrose really can't swallow 
straight, unmitigated materialism? 
Dennett: Penrose wants a skyhook, a 
deus ex machina, an exemption from 
■nechansm. from algorithmic mindless 
processes. Darwin suggests all design 
in nature can be explained in terms of 
mechanisms— what I call "cranes" — of 
one Darwinian algorithmic process 

piled on top of another. To me this is 
the best, most beautiful idea I've ever 

Omni: By cranes you mean more com- 
plex intermediary mechanisms— per- 
fectly consistent with Darwinian 
process— that help promote evolution- 
ary change? 

Dennett: Right. But others find it op- 
pressive, and for them the search has 
always been to find some gap that 
could not be leapt by cranes, mere 
mechanism, where you must have a 
skyhook to help you up to the next 
level. Noam Chomsky, when he resists 
evolutionary accounts of the creation or 
the language organ, would probably 

wrong. He's right; that's wrong. But 
gosh, I can't think of anybody in the 
sciences who's asserted that view 
since Darwin! 

Omni: So a goal-directed view of evolu- 
tion is incorrect? 

Dennett: On a global scale, it's always 
. mistake to think about progress — 


s up 

looked like progress, will it? But on 
shorter time scales, there is progress. 
Of course there's progress in evolution. 
There's hill-climbing going on on many 
scales in many dimensions all the time. 
And there is in culture, too. Some peo- 
ple have a hard time believing " 

a skyhook, a sort of gift after Steve Gould the n 

from God that sets us apart from the 
rest of mechanical creation and is inex- 
plicable in terms of brute mechanism. 
Penrose is forthright in saying he finds 
the idea of Al offensive and wants to 
show artificial intelligence can't be 
right. At first, I blush to say, I didn't con- 
pressed doubt about standard 
Darwinian theory of natural 
selection. Then I realized he's 
almost obliged to be a skeptic 


universe to see what happens. To do 
that you have to think of yourself as 
outside it. If the experimenter is part of 
the fabric of the universe, maybe it's an 
illusion that you can "objective fy" dis- 
turb the universe — it's just one part of 
the universe disturbing another. 

I don't see this as a formal contra- 
diction. If so, science would fall apart. 
It's an approximation, idealization, but 
one built into the heart of the scientific 
method. The desire for that idealization 
to be the literal truth may be what fuels 

mechanism. Many people are quite 
willing to play a geographical game. 

after an unfortunately effective r 
he's put out there that I think has to De 
revised. I've tried to leave Steve as 
much room as possible to say, "Oh, 
thanks, Dan, I hadn't realized the rhet- 
oric had some of thBse untoward ef- 
fects." But that's not what he's said so 
far. A few years ago. my literary agent, 


3 the 

place that really matters. The I 

all be mechanism, but please let cor 

sciousness be exempt from that. 

Omni: Why is Darwin's idea danger 

ous? For whom? 

Dennett: it's dangerous to those 

have staked everything 


nof h 


. little tiny 

lar robots, and we're com- 
posed of robots. And that's 
what Al says. To be a skeptic 

about strong Al and not be a 

skeptic about evolution, you'd 
have to maintain that, although we de- 
scend from a long line of robots, at 
some point sbazami — something mar- 
velous happens so we cease to be just 
a collection of robots. 
Omni: You take on another popular sci- 
entist, Stephen Jay Gould, in your new 
book. Whats your objection to his views? 
Dennett: Steve has been out to attack a 
notion of a global progress and goal- 
directedness in evolution. But that is 
not the view of evolutionists: it's a lay 
view of evolution, and a silly one So if 
that's Gould's target, what's he going 
on about? Nobody in the field accepts 

Omni: So your argument is with Gould's 







bridges they drive over 

and makes possible the 
television they watch. That 
very same science, just as 
objective and reliable, is 
showing all these proc- 
esses they thought had to 
have divine explanation ul- 
timately don't. 

People who've mistak- 
.:o!in :?roukrnan. arranged ior us to have enly thought ethics and morality de- 
lunch with him and Danny Hillis from pend on this mind-first version will find 
Thinking Machines, It was terribly tense, the whole foundation of their sense of 
My effort there was to give Steve the what life is about overturned. That's 
skyhook/crane distinction, and define dangerous, because it's upsetting, 
the difference between good reduc- There 
tionism and greedy reductionism. 
Good reductionists think it can all be 
done without skyhooks; greedy red Lie - 

works. I 

/the u 

i. Then I proposed w 

we? We were 

urned to Steve, he wouldn't 
[no skyhooks] was a mecha- 

jctionism he really didn't like. 

! Darwinian one. All I 
can say is most of whal people hold 
dear in the traditional woridview — and, 
I'd argue, everything that really manors 
to that woridview — is preserved in the 
Darwinian view in adjusted form 
There's plenty of meaning, morality, 
love, and hate — everything great and 
important to us has a version that sur- 
vives healthier than ever 
Omni: What would be different about 

find the Darwinian model s 

view marks a revolution in science? 
Dennett: He certainly presented Won- 
derful Life as a view supposed to upset Dennett: One reason is built right into 
the evolutionary establishment. If what the scientific enterprise. When scien- 
hes saying is that many people outside lists experiment, they presuppose they 
biology continue to think because are independent, outside of the phe- 
we're one of the end-products to date nomenon being studied. As Freeman 
of evolution, this is a process destined Dyson points out in Disturbing ihe Uni- 
and supposed to produce us — that's verse, the scieni.s: i:j disturbing the 

;s like Gould and morality in Darwin's version? 

Dennett: Li 

l Everybody 

in ideological but a 
practical question. The traditionalist 
thinks or hopes there will be a joint at 
which nature is carved that will settle 
this issue, an essential divide. Darwin 
shows nature doesn't have that kind of 
joint. Whatever decision we make will 



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be 10 some degree arbitrary. Thai My gosh, how could I have fallen for 

doesn'i mean we can't nave reasons for that? It's tricky stuff. These ideas seem 

it. It's like ihe law that says you can't get tailor-made tor enthusiasm of both the 

a driver's license till you're 16 or 18. good and bad sort. People get a little 

Everybody knows it's arbitrary, but pea- Darwin under their belt, and they're off 

pie don't lie awake at night worrying and running. 

about the injustice of it. because they Omni: How can we avoid such pitfalls? 

realize it's an arbitrary point. Good moral Dennett; First, we have to think about 

reasons exist for s d.vidini; I rte and no- what matters and why. Few would 

body should suppose some imaginably agree with B, F. Skinner that the sur- 

discoverable set of facts would do bet- vival of culture in its present form is the 

r. We'll have to do that /.ill i r i 
and moral issues such as the medical 
definition of death. Darwinism shows 
that hope for a more principled dividing 
line on these issues is forlorn. 
Omni: Is some resistance a kind of lazi- 
ness, a not wanting to do the work of 
deciding for ourselves? 
Dennett: I wouldn't label it laziness so 
much as a distaste for what seems an 
unprincipled decision. They don't want 
to give up a view that would rule tram 
on high. The Ten Commandments, law 
of Islam, Talmud, or whatever, lay it on 
the line. People don't relish casting 

adrift trom those traditional 

anchors. Real points of con- 
frontation are often, and 
maybe in most regards for 
good reason, glossed over. 
People don't want to start 
fights. There's been a tendency 
to be too tolerant of woolly- 
headed compatiblist thinking 
about evolution. It's not such a 
hard pill to swallow, some say. 
Well, it is a hard pill to swal- 
low, but swallow It. 

Omni: Some would see your 

position as atheistic. Do you 
describe yourself as such? 
Dennett; I'm actually closer to a pan- 
theist. At the end of Da/win's Danger- 
ous Idea I say. look, the world itselt, this 
unique, marvelous, fantastic thing sort 
of created itself ex nihilo, and that's 

what's sacred, right there. It isn't the cious, and what make: 
atheism ot "nothings sacred:" it isn't ni- ogy so bad. It makes 
hilism, but by any other lights it's atheism, mistake of supposing 
Omni: What about some less admirable value of the process th 

end-all and be-all. Most of us 
think we shouldn't even try to identify 

the summum bonum for all people and 
time. We should ask; What seems to 
matter the most and to go on mattering 
the most to most of us for as far as we 
can foresee? If it turns out that half a 
million years from now our descen- 
dants don't give a hoot for liberty, art, 
or love . . . well, it's good we didn't 
make horrendous sacrifices now that 
they might have liberty, art, and free- 
dom then. It'd be hubris to suppose 
what matters most to us now is always pher t 
going to matter most to everybody and found 

turn out to 

be much more "deconstruc- 

tionist" thai 

biologists thought so. too, that context 

must rule expression of DNA, so thera'd 

possibility. Each species would have its 

own DNA 

lion. But i 

doesn't turn out that way. 

When you 

lilt glow-in-the-dark genes 

Vorii 1 "jiiii 

s and put 'em in plants, they 

dark! That's an absolutely 

fructionist fact. It's like tak- 

ing a sen 

ence out of the Gilgamesh 

and putting it into a Saul Bellow novel 

ere learning about DNA is 

that altho 


makes all 

le difference, in practice, it 

doesn't ma 

ke all the difference. There's 

the cryptographer's constraint. Cryp- 
tographers have always known that if 
you can find any sizable chunk of ci- 
pher text, any decoding at all, you've 
decoding. That principle is 
being shown to apply in al- 
' form to DMA, so 







s find tf 


Dennett: Sure, I 
I'm sure Gould i 
what made social Dar 

purposes to which people have put 
Darwin's ideas over the years— racial 
divisions, fascism? 

Dennett; Social Darwinism, eugenics, 
Nazism ... No guestion. Darwinism 
has inspired some pernicious, even 
obscene social movements and politi- 
al doctrines. Then so has Platonism 

:■ be; extrapolated into the future, 
Omni: Can Darwinian theory be useful 
io people in the humanities? 
Dennett: Yes, my own sernicasual survey 
of thinking among critics is that they've 
all seen the wisdom of abandoning a 
pure Cartesian mind-tirst author-lirsl 
What's the i" " 

and Einsteinian relai v ly ihGory. though deconstruclion — all about? ThatS b : 

perhaps not as badly. Darwin's idea i 
so seductive. It's very easy to get a 
cheap version of it and then run off 
half-cocked, thinking you've got the 
blessings of science for one dismal 
misconstrued idea or another. I'm em- 
barrassed to say I've fallen for some 
bad arguments, then woken up saying, 

butter to these people. They' 

seen what to flee. But my gosh, they' 

been all over the map about where 

go from there, so we've had a lot 
;"; i ":.n ■■■y exaggeration of different sorts 
post-modernist, relativist baloney. 

There was a time when my hum 
that the truth about DNA was going 

Drosophila are recogniz- 
ably the same as a gene in 
mice for their eyes. In liter- 
ature we'll realize "in princi- 
ple" any text can be read 
as any other: Moby Dick is 

Try it. It doesn't work. 
Omni: Some people will 
complain you're forcing 

: they like their traditional 

Dennett: I'm not making up these facts 
or discovering them. I'm doing what I 
can to show what the implications are 

question of not 
confusing them with other cats people 
think may be out of that bag. If, when I 
initially thought about it, the balance 
would have cdme out negatively, I 
wouldn't have written the book. I'd have 
ischief, doing dam- 
vandalism. On the 
vision pi things we hold 
elegant, more real, has 
more detail. It's more awe-inspiring 
than the vision it replaces. So people 
are trading up to a more adult and 
wonderful idea. But a lot of people 
don't want to be adults. Some regret 
the passage of childhood, and in many 
regards sd do I. It'd be wonderful to be 
able to experience the world through 
five-year-old eyes. But people grow up. 
and the human race is growing up. 
And it's lime to be grownups. OO 

thought, thi 
contrary, the 


Dear Reader, 

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Apple Macintosh 









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owing portable computers you own 

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or plan to purchase In the 

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sd 12 months? 


Nintendo (NES) 


Super Nintendo (SNES) 



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you own/bought past 90 days/rented past 90 days. 

Bought past Rented past 

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v... ii ;.k ( and another household members from all sowcos n.c 

as salaries, pensions, i'i'eii^i.oividei ds, rentals, etc.) 

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□ Grade school U Attended college 

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35. Which of rhs: id -i.-v.-n ■■:> 
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ultimately tracked down the (ive "miss- 
ing" Roswell nurses). If Kaufmann 
wasn't on lile there, then either his 
records had been destroyed In a fire 
that ravaged I he place 22 years ago— 
or he never really served in the Army. 
"The fact is." Kaufmann declares. "I did 
s honorably discharged 

n October o~ 


r to rt 


ir the new 

Trans-Western natural gas pipeline. 
Kaufmann had warned me I'd never 
find it myself, and never make il without 
four-wheel drive. All I had was an econ- 
omy-class rental car and a broken (ape 
recorder. So I was very happy to dis- 
cover a flyer on Ihe bulletin board in my 
motel, announcing that the impact site 
near Roswell, "Home of the UFO Inci- 
dent of 1947." was available for view- 
ing. The pink paper showed a picture 
of a flying saucer with a phone number 
to call for information and reservations. 

I met Herbert ("Hub"! Corn the next 
morning, as arranged, at a mile marker 
on the highway leading north out of 
Roswell. Corn, a cordial young sheep 
rancher driving a workhorse pickup 
truck with two herding dogs in its bay, 
had agreed to chauffeur me to the spot 
for $1 5. He asked me to sign a release, 
drawn up for him by a lawyer, agreeing 
that I would not hold him responsible 
for injuries I might incur trom. among 
other things, "snakes, scorpions, cac- 
tus, lizards, and other wild animals" on 
the Hub Corn Ranch or crash site, 

"You're joking about the scorpions, 
right?" I asked him. 

"They're not a problem this time of 
year," Hub replied, smiling. "And my 
dogs'll take care of the rattlesnakes." 

As we bumped slowly 

Jennings has proclaimed "UFO Aware- 
ness Week." In another two years, 
when the fiftieth anniversary of the 
Roswell Incident rolls around, who 
knows what the traffic will bear? 

Hub stopped on a flat stretch, as 
close as he could get to the hill whete 
"it" had happened. Unlike the great 
mesas that poke their flat heads far 
above the desert floor, this elevation 
was not at all outstanding. It lonkp'i too 
low to get in any low-flying aircraft's 
way, so far as I could tell, although it 
might break the tall of a crashing one 

We walked through the chaycte aid 
prickly pear, talking about sneec 
prices and flying saucers, until we 
reached the dried-out stream beO at 
the foot of the hill. 

;, Hub tt 

i the spot 

ff had landed 
met Randle and Schmitt, who took 
Kaufmann's word that this must be the 
place. He seemed interested but re- 
It had happened 


i. And hi 

struck me as too savvy a rani 
close to his land, to think that 
attraction— even one of this magni- 
tude^ — would ever replace his real work 
of raising lambs for market and shear. 
ing sheep of their wool. Still, he's beer 
improving the road in anticipati 

"What we really need is some rain," 
said Hub. 

I stared up and down Rosweii's field 
of dreams. I let myself imagine the sto- 
ried scene in all its glory. Wilh plea- 
sure, I found that in that spot, the 
incident raised a few goosebumps on 

spine. Predictably, I didn't see anything 
" is spit of sand apart from the 
e desert— no vestige of wreck- 
markers where the bodies 
Ve lain or the MPs could have 
,p their barricades. Yet. I telt 
nd somehow privileged to be 
;se to the heart of the mystery. 
this didn't happen," I remem- 
■ author saying in the introduc- 
lovel, "it's true anyway. "DO 

Actual U.S. Military Recordings trom 

Phone Patches, Base-ro-Rase Communications, 

and Ground-to-AIr Radio of the October 7, 1965 Event- 


| As heard on Oliver North's National Radio Prog ram I 

•NORAD and Army Air Defense Command on the Alert! 
•F-106 scrambled after Luminous Aerial Objects! 
-Edwards, George, March. Norton and Hamilton Air Force 

Bases participated in this Marti rig Military ■?■■.■■?:(■" ! 
•Military personnel confirm seeing the Strange Flashing Objects over the 

Edwards runwayl 



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Maria Manas 

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Winter Quarterly 1995 Issue 

Closing Date: 9/20/95 

Maria Manaseri 





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talked was she'd contact me when she 

where to find her anyway. 
Omni: Many questions have been 
raised about your relationship with the 
nurse, even that you and she consid- 
ered marriage 

Dennis: That's bull! I was married, and 
she and I were just friendly acquain- 
tances, nothing else. I wasn't after her 
or anything. When all this happened, 
she'd been at the base only abc 
three months, in the service abc 

cute— like a small Audrey Hepbu 
with short black hair, dark eyes, a 
olive skin— but kind of a loner, si 

didn't fit in. But I talked with her when- 
ever I saw her at the infirmary, 

Omni: Why do you think the nurse and 
everything about her seem to have 

Dennis: This is just my surmise, but I Ihink 
when she was transferred, they dis- 
charged her and arranged for her to join 
an order, enter a convent. Everything 
was covered up with the church's help. 
Omni: What do you think really was be- 
hind what happened to you in July 
1947? What was really going on? 
Dennis: Like I've said all along. I have 
at happened 

whole experience in 40 years or more. I 
was remembering out loud, and I made 

memories straight. Things got mixed up 
in later interviews, too. Interviews still make 
me nervous, and reporters are always 
getting things down wrong. What I've told 
you here is my story, take it or leave it. 
Omni: You ' 

with vi 

; t you s 

s the 

it the n 

i. The 

were telling my story, I wouldn't believe it. 
Omni: if you really wanted to keep this 
story under wraps, why did you start talk- 
ing to UFO invcsiic;.n:ors in thf; f:.-s: placo? 
How did they even know you existed? 
Dennis: I told you about Joe Lucas toss- 
ing out my files. I've heard he told some- 
one about a Ballard's co-worker of his 
being involved, without mentioning a 
name. This was about 1985, I think, and 
he's dead now. Anyway, if this is true, 
then maybe he found my file with the 

ing things out. Maybe this is how my 
story started to leak out and Friedman 
eventually found me. t really don't know. 
Anyway, he did find me, and I agreed 
to talk with him because Unsolved 
Mysteries was using him as a technical 
adviser, so I thought he knew what he 
was doing. I wanted to have some veri- 
fication of my story, but without any 
publicity or problems for the nurse, and 
I thought it might be important, 
Omni: Some of those skeptical of your 
story have pointed 

Dennis: I would like 
pened to her and hs 
my story. 

Omni: It has been alleged you made up 
the name you gave researchers. 
Dennis: No, no way. I've never done that. 
Omni: Others have suggested that you 
provided the wrong name, or possibly, 
a misspelled name, due to imperfect 
memory. Is this possible? 
Dennis: Yes, I guess it's possible I don't 
have her name Quite right. 
Omni: Several researchers are attempt- 
ing to locate the nurse under the name 
Naomi Maria Selff, which has been 
published by UFO skeptic Philip J. 
Klass. Is this her true name? 
Dennis: I promised her I would never re- 
veal her real name, so I can't confirm or 
deny. It she's sii I aiive, .' (ion : wan! her 

to get in any more trouble. I don't want 
her or her family to be bothered, either. 
Omni: Anyone who could conceivably 
confirm your story seems to be dead. 
Obviously, as long as you refuse to pro- 
vide the nurse's name so it can be fully 
and openly checked out, people will 
continue to consider your story sus- 
pect. Doesn't this concern you? 
Dennis: It doesn't make a damn bit of dif- 
ference to me. They can believe it or not. 
Omni: Would you be willing to give 
Omni the nurse's true name so the 
magazine can attempt to locate her? 
Dennis: To answer the first question: 
definitely not, and I've already said why. 
If I ever got proof she was dead, I prob- 
ably would make her name known or 
confirm it. 
Omni: II you couli 
again with respect 
in this incident, whs 
Dennis: I would ne\ 
thing about it! I'd just keep 
go about my business. I resent being 
put on the defensive, ridiculed, and 
called a liar for telling the truth about 
what happened — especially by people 
who just take potshots with no facts to 
back them up. 

Omni: If the nurse or some member of 
her family or someone who knows her 
is reading this, what would you like to 
say to her or them? 

Dennis: Whenever she is ready to con- 
tact me, I would like to hear Irom her. I 
really hope she's okay.OO 

do anything 

would you do? 
til anybody any- 

Death and Dying 

company. The man didn't even remem- 
ber until he got out of the car that his 
father had been dead for 20 years." 
While stories such as this may not be 
the norm, they are certainly common. 

One reason that people find comfort 
in these supranatural communications 
is that it blurs the hard distinction be- 
tween life and death, and sugoust;' ha: 
the finality of death may be overcome — 
the potent promise that has long inspired 
and plagued Judeo-Christian theology. 

For some time eternal life seemed to 
be solely a concern for religion; how- 
ever, science and pseudoscience is 
beginning to assert its own bid for im- 
mortality. As Grosso explains. "Cryon- 
ics and bioengineering are exploring 
ways to extend life, to eliminate death. 
It's a logical extension of the Christian 
hope of resurrection." 

Some, however, question the Ameri- 
can obsession with prolonging life. Ac- 
cording to Kramer, "We are in denial 
about death. Americans are extreme in 
their masking and disguising anything 
that has to do with death. This is char- 
acteristic of industrial cultures ob- 
sessed with material belongings. We 
feel we have a lot to lose." Grosso, on 
the other hand, feels that Americans 
simply choose a form ot ignorance. 
"The majority of Americans have a vague 
i';i"jB live: -mage, but they do not have a 
clear picture of what they think the af- 
terlife will be like. They just don't give it 
much thought." Miller has reached sim- 
ilar conclusions in her research. "We are 
young and naive. We are not long-range 
:hinkcrs Hore we have change every 
20 minutes. It is difficult for us to' consider 
something as profound as eternity." 

Nevertheless, as the Omni survey 
demonstrates, there is increasing interest 
in the subject of the afterlife. Numerous 
books about NDEs, visions, angels, and 
journeys have been published in the 
past few years. As Greeley notes, "The 
only way to prepare for the afterlife is to 
have a great capacity for surprise." 
When asked about his own sense of 
what it will be like, Greeley says. "My 

place where we've come from, but it 
will be going home to a place to which 
we've been destined all along." In this 
same spirit, a 71-year-old retiree from 
Fort Erie. Ontario, wrote to us with some 
pretty good advice. "There is no fear. 
I'm looking forward to tf 
So may we all. CXI 



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Scot celebrates with elegant haiku and wild brainteasers 

By Scot Morris 

At seventeen! learned the 

the 5-7-5 formal to be con- 

Pity the haiku. 

Patrick's Day on March 17, 

sidered true haiku. Many 

It's a midget poem that 

and December 17. 1903, 

English haiku bend the haiku 

Doesn t even rhyme. 

It has been 17 years since 

marked the Wright brothers' 


ihe first Omni, and this 

first flight. 

anniversary issue marks Ihe 

Annemarie Schimmel, in 

I've got red sand between 

One Carebear alone 

beginning of a new quar- 

The Mystery of Numbers 

Silling in me microwave. 

terly format— bigger, better, 

(Oxtord University Press. 

Summer vacation in outer 

Difficult to clean. 

and, once again, sport- 

1992|, calls 17 "the num- 



ing two pages ot Games. 

ber of conquest," because 

—Robin Williams 

Seventeen years is a 

Can you top these? Omni 

most auspicious age. li's the 

fare and heroism, and notes 

Oh, dear 

Competition #56 asks you 

time span of a patent and 

its religious significance. 

Just beginning, 

to compose modern haiku. 1 

the age at which one can see 

islamic tradition calls lor 1 7 

And already 1 ve used up alt 

prefer them in the tradi- 

R- rated movies or box in 

cycles of prayer move- 

my syllab 

tional 5-7-5. 17-syllable format 

the Olympics. 

ments daily and 17 words in 

—Author unknown 

bul will consider worthy 

And there's the 17-year 

the call to prayer. Urartu, 

exceptions. I'll judge them 

locust, found in the north- 

the ancient god protecting 

Comedian/publisher Paul 

on originality, concision. 

eastern United States, whose 

Mount Ararat, traditionally 

Krassner thinks the tradi- 

Omnr-esque content, and 

nymphs remain dormant 

got a 1 7-fold sacrifice. After 

tional limitations must be kept: 

humor. The grand prize 

under the ground for just that 

starting on the seventeenth 

winner will receive $100, and 

long before emerging. 

day of the second month, the 

nis game; you can take Ihe net 

lour runners-up will each 

swarming, and starting the 

Biblical flood ended on 

down, but then you're not 

get $25. You may enter more 

next generation. This adap- 

Ararat on ihe seventeenth day 

playing the game." He ex- 

than once, but each entry 

lation protects the insects from 

of the seventh month. 

pressed this conviction with; 

must be mailed separately. 

any predators that may 


also have multiyear popula- 

ese haiku is composed of 

Tradition is all: 

* come the property 



Iff" 111 

Hj of Omni: none will be 
Ifl) returned. Send your 
l| 1 haiku, name, address. 



|| 1 and phone number on 



1 1 " a postcard only (no let- 

Rock It Soil Classics I 

|ffc | 



1 ters accepted) 
111 to: Omni Haiku Con- 
Bjft test. 324 WWen- 

— x& J 



■^ dover Ave.. Suite 200. 
fc Greensboro. IMC 27408. 

lion cycles, and it works 

17 syllables: The first and third 

Five syllables, seven, live 

IT. . . , Advertising, window 

lines have five syllables 

"Til have Classic Coke!" 

displays, even magic tricks 

ber— not divisible by 

each, while the second has 

are all taking advantage of a 

any smaller number other 

Krassner created an ele- 

fascinating new technol- 

rnalist poems that capture 

gant self- referential joke 

ogy. You may have seen it al- 

Seventeen is a city in 

in haiku ( To tallow impulse/ 

Ohio, and Ohio was Ihe 

moment but that inspire a 

Practice spontaneity/ 

ii. Contra Vision North Amer- 

seventeenth state. The United 

Then totlow impulse), which 

States mounted 17 Apollo 

insight. Purisls argue over 

prompted me to ask for 

nology. finds itself in an odd 

missions, and Vietnam was 

whether haiku in English- - 

more from readers in the Scot 

divided inlo North and 

both those composed in Eng- 

Morris's Game Room area 

licize its product, yet the prod- 

South along the seventeenth 

of Omni Online, which can be 

uct is designed not to be 

parallel. Generals and 

from the original Japanese- 

found on America Online 

seen. In the photo of the bus 

admirals gel a 17-gun sa- 

require 17 syllables in 

(AOL). My two lavorites: 

at left, a colored ad blares 

all over the windows. From 
inside the bus, however. 
the ad is invisiblel 

The technology involves a 

in England, in which two dots 
of paint are placed pre- 
cisely one on top of Ihe other, 
first, a grid of tiny black 
dois is painted on; when the 
technique is used on win- 
dows, it gives them a slightly 
darker tin! from the in-side. 
When a second dab of .paint 
is placed directly on top of 

le first, it 

is. Outside, the second dot of 
paint is clearly 
visible and can be anything 
an advertiser wants. 

Perhaps the most interest- 
ing application of the 
technology so far is to magic 
tricks. An entire deck ol 
playing cards has been print- 
ed in Contra Vision and 
costs about $60. The simplesl 
example available to the 
public is "The Hidden Sun," 
part ol the Magic Works 
series by Milton -Bradley (in 

Japanese magic 
Tenyo. featured here 
January 1994). in toy 

for a! 

.it $10. 

Here are some brain 
bombs for you intellectual 

1 . If February is the short- 
longest month? (This is a fair 
question, with no trick an- 
swer such as "September, be- 
cause it's nine letters long.") 

2. Al Ted and Millie's Alli- 
gator and Ostrich Farm. 



feet. Assuming 1 1 

only alligators and ostnene: 

(not Ted and Millie or any 

and cubed 

numbers that between them 
use up the digits to 9 

;h (for 

xxx J = 0000, and xxx 3 = 

000000, where all the O's are 
different digits). What's 
the number? 

5. We are flipping a coin, 
and I offer you this bet. 
Pick any triplet of heads and 
tails — say tails/tails/heads 
or heads/tails/heads. Then I'll 
pick a different triplet. We 
record Ihe flips until one ol our 
triplets appears. If yours 
appears first, you win; if mine 
shows up first, I win. To 
sweeten the pot, I'll give you 
three-to-lwo odds: When 
you win. I'll pay you three dol- 

only pay me two dollars. Will 
you take Ihe bet? 

6. What is ihe pattern be- 
hind this series? 

22,20, 13. 12. 11, 10, 9. 

e. a 

7. Dick Hess gives you a 

surface of a sphere and 

ing ihe span of the com- 
pass, a circle on paper. If the 
big. the circle 

the sphere t 
smaller than the circle on 

paper, because ils diameler 
slices through the sphere. 
Bul which has r 


the globe? 

8. Cut three strips of card- 
board and make the 

articulated figure shown 
above. It lies flat on the 
paper, wilh Ihe iwo ends fixed 
to the paper and the two 
joints pinned together so they 
can swivel. Poke a pencil 
through the center of the mid- 
dle piece. By moving the 
pencil in all directions, what 
path will it trace? 


1. October is 31 days 
long, plus one hour, when 
clocks shift back from 
Daylight Savings Time. 

2. 23 ostriches, 12 


5. My chances of winning 
are at leas! two-thirds 
and go up to seven-eighths 
if I always pick a triplet 
that starts with the opposite 

flip yours does, then ends 
with the first two signs of your 
choice. There are eight 
possible triplets, and depend- 
ing on which one you 
choose, the odds of my win- 
ning are al least two- 
thirds and go up to seven- 
eighths! An example that 
makes it obvious would be il 
you picked tails/tails/tails. 
You'd win one-eighth ol the 
time after Ihe first three 
throws. But I'll pick heads/ 
tails/tails, and win all 
the other seven-eighths of 
ihe time! 

6. The series is the repre- 
sent al ion ol Ihe number 
eight in dilferent bases, start- 
up wiih oasc three. 
Twenty-two is eighl in base 
Twenty is 

eight in 

8. Try to visu;ili.'c. whril ih 
shape will be without actu- 
ally building the co-ih jption 
t wouldn't be fair to print 



24 hours a day. 7 days a week, 52 weeks a year 

By Bob Quinn 

i"""""> hey have landed. They're 

What has happened here? Is 

like a talk show, sounds like a 

1 out ot this world. Com- 

talk show, but isn't? An infomer- 

1 munication has it that 

alien to me? Or do other inhabi- 

cial— half-hour and hour-long 

there are mare on their way. They 

commercials built around a prod- 

are everywhere, all the time, and 

seems that anybody or, may 1 

uct or service using a talk-show 

they've r;een with us lor years. 

say, any being can have a talk 

format. Like the one about how 

They coma as our sister, mother. 

show. From television stars who 

to make a million dollars doing 

r.iotfe' lather, cousin, next-door 

no longer have a television show 

anything with no money down. 

. ■■(■ ;■ ■;:::( Ordinary beings — with a 

to Dionne with her psychic 

Another: Now you can eat, eat, eat, 

friends. And all with topics as far 

and you won't get fa!, fat, fat. Un- 

s:o~<p suffer, and cry for us. They 

['iHli!-jv;ii')lc! Not only do we watch, 

wM 11,,' minds, pierce our hearts. 

we sometimes actually buy! 

.!-■;- sci ojr souls. It's an invasion. 

band's boss in order to get her 

They invade our homes, our 

The i-vasion of the talk shows. 

lives. O'j! privacy, and our pock- 

There are morning talk shows. 

who is married to a lesbian who 

daytime talk shows, nighttime 

is having an affair with a trans- 

talk shows, and late-night talk 

sexual. And what about the chil- 

going to be a new 24-hour talk- 

shows. There is a talk show about 

snow cnannel. Maybe in a yea/ 

the talk shows. Soon there may 

dogs who love them. 

or two they will even have talk 

even be a whole magazine dedi- 

Why are they here? Whal do 

show award shows. In America, 

cated to covering the talk shows. 

they seek? What is their mission? 

nothing succeeds like excess. 1 

K-lll, which also publishes Soap 

Is it to educate? Is it to inform? Is 

guess 1 should have seen it com- 

Digest, recently tested a new 

it to entertain? Are they here to 

ing the first time 1 heard Ed roll 

magazine on newsstands called 

show us what we are, or what we 

out "Heeere's Johnny." In the 

All Talk. And why not? Most ot us 

are becoming? 

United States of Television, one 

are on a first-name basis with at 

The word dysfunctional comes 

good thing leads inevitably to a 

least one ot them. There's Oprah, 

uncomfortably to mind. 

cable channel lull of more of 

of course, who seems to be on a 

Does misery really love so 

the same.OO 

first-name basis with just about 

much company? We just can't 

Than Is 

everyone. There's Phil, Sally, 

seem to get enough of other 

Montel, and Maury, Regis and 

people's misery. Why is it that we 

men HttiB's 

Kathy Lee, Beatrice, Leeza. Jerry 

love to see families fall apart on Is the 

and Jane. There's Ricki, and 

the airwaves? Husbands scream- 

latter which 

there used to be Vicki. Geraldo. 

ing at their wives, daughters yell- 

ensures thil any- 

And these are just some of the 

ing at their mothers, and mothers 

one I'JltO 

daytime rs— those well-groomed 

crying for their sons. At each 

wants a television 

solid-state friends who always 

show cm 

seem to have plenty of tissue 

hear the host say, "We'll be back 

have a television 

and a knowing nod, followed by 

with more misery, right alter this." 

shew. 1 am 

expressions such as "You'd bet- 

Do we watch because it makes 

now convinced 

our lives seem less miserable, 

thai this 

you really do enjoy decapitating 

somehow better in comparison? 

Is wliy Elvis shot 

dolly heads." 

his TV set, 

In the darker hours, late-night 

Something like: My husband goes 

out and drinks, and 1 know he's 

a dazzling array of celebrities, 

cheating on me, but thank God he 

L^BB^"THS.. Tan 

orchestrated music, elaborate 

skits, and stupid pet tricks. It's sup- 

Ah, my lite is better than hers. Oh 

posed to be a way of lunning your- 

my God, look al the time. I'd bet- 

self to sleep. But it's more. The 

ter start dinner, or he'll kill me. 

late-night circuit is a deadly game. 

The invasion has been taking 

a joke-to-lhe-death battle Dave 

on a new form while we weren't 

and Jay dancing on the graves 

looking, maybe out watering the 

of Arsenic Chevy, and Joan. 

grass or something. What looks 

^H ^&— "" """"v.. 

Hugh Hixon is a biochemist. At the Alcor Life 
Extension Foundation, Hugh is developing 
techniques for suspending human life in such a 
way that it can lie started again, decades or even 
■s in the future. 

Today, doctors routinely revive patients who 
lack vital signs for an hour or more. Tomorrow, 
using nanotcclinoiogy— molecular machines 
capable of repairing individual cells— medicine 
will have far greater capabilities. 

We look forward to a time when it should be 
possible to revive anyone whose brain still 
contains the information that defines personality 
and intelligence— regardless of other factors. And 
by that time, we believe science will have 
conquered the aging process. 

How can this help you? Through cryonics. 
Cryonics means freezing a patient so that future 
technology may give that person a new, longer 
life. Cryonics is a highly sophisticated 
medical procedure— but is easily 
affordable, since the cost is paid 
primarily through life insurance. 

This man 
wants to 
show you 
the future. 

At Alcor, we offer you a chance to achieve 
something that people have dreamed of for 
thousands of years: an unrestricted lifespan. 

Alcor is the largest provider of crvonics 
services in the world. If you'd like to know 
more, call our toll-free number anytime: 
800-367-2228. ' 

Call Alcor now and 
ask for our free intro- 
ductory brochure, and 
we'll include a free 
sample of Cryonics 
magazine, our 
quarterly publication. 
Cryonics is simply 
the best source of 
information about 

cryonics news and developments 
available anywhere. 


Our staff are always standing by. And if 
you have any technical questions, Hugh 
will be happy to answer them. 

Alcor Life Extension Foundation 

7895 E. Acoma Dr. #1 10, SCOttsdale, AZ 85260-6916 

Knitiil: iiilo<n;ilei)r.i.irg littpi/Avww.wcbcom.crmV-iilnir 

Before Stratus hit the streets, 
it was hitfivin the from, the side, 

anil from behind in hundreds nj 
computer simulated crashes. 
Through a 

ultra high- 
strength steel reinforcements in 
the doors and a continuous 

ladder frame would lead to 
amazing struct lira I integrity. 

To this base of protection we 
added a standard airbagfor both 
the driver and front passenger, 
tin available integrated child 

safely seat, and optional four- 
wheel anti-lock brakes. 

Finally, we ran our new 
Stratus through actual impact 
tests. The result: 
empirical evidence 
s/it.'wiiig Stratus 
exceeds 1998 
federal car safety 
It's reassuring to 
know, Stratus also affords you 
the protection of our Customer 
One Care™ 3-year or 36,000- 
mile bumper-to-humper 
warranty and 3/36 Roadside 

To find out more about Stratus, 
call I-S00-4-A-DODCE. 

Stratus starts at $14,995* 
and includes... 

• 16-valve. SOHC, sequential 

multi-point fuel injected engine, 

5-speed manual transmission 

• Modified Jiitihlf-wisiihiiiic suspension 

• Rear defroster • AM/FM cassette stereo 

• Ultra high-strength steel door beams 

• Air cfiidilioniiig • Reclinin.K bucket seats 
■ Dual airbags • Child safety rear door lacks 

• Dual remote mirrors • Speed control 

• Cupholders • Intermittent wipers 
• Dun! visor vanity mirrors 
•Tinted glass • Tilt steering 

ES shown $16,645 t 

This is one instance 

where it was good the 

computer crashed.